Mini Encyclopedia

08/06/2013 06:54

If you're using a PC, push control then "F" at the same time.       

If you're using a mac same thing but command and "F".            Once you did that, type a random word but standard word to see a fact.


The newer facts are are all the way to the bottom.

+Mahamevnawa Buddhist Monastery is an organization of Buddhist monasteries, of Sri Lankan origin established to benefit the spiritual development of human beings using the teachings of theGautama Buddha.[1] Its main main monastery is in Polgahawela, Sri Lanka, and Sri Lanka is home to 35 branches of the organization. Overseas branches are in Canada,[2] USA, Australia, UK [3] and Germany.

+The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is internationally the most widely accepted and used civil calendar.[1][2][3] For decades, it has been the unofficial global standard, adopted for pragmatic interests of international communication, transportation and commercial integration and recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and theUniversal Postal Union

+Flight 19 was the designation of five TBM Avenger torpedo bombers that disappeared on December 5, 1945 during a United States Navy overwater navigation training flight from Naval Air Station Fort LauderdaleFlorida

+Charles Elwood "ChuckYeager (pron.: /ˈjɡər/; born February 13, 1923) is a retired major general in the United States Air Force and noted test pilot. He was the first pilot to travel faster than sound (1947). Originally retiring in 1975 as a brigadier general, Yeager was promoted to major general on the Air Force's retired list in 2005 for his military achievements.

+Zyklon B (German pronunciation: [tsykloːn ˈbeː]; also spelled Cyclon B or Cyclone B) was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in the early 1920s and infamous for its later use by Nazi Germany to kill human beings in gas chambers of extermination camps during the Holocaust. Zyklon B consisted of hydrogen cyanide (prussic acid), a stabilizer, a warning odorant (ethyl bromoacetate),[Note 1] and one of several adsorbents.

+The Vrba–Wetzler report, also known as the Auschwitz Protocols, the Auschwitz Report, and the Auschwitz notebook, is a 40-page document about the Auschwitz concentration campin Nazi-occupied Poland during the Holocaust. It was written by hand or dictated in Slovak between 25 and 27 April 1944 by Rudolf Vrba and Alfréd Wetzler, two Slovak Jews who had escaped from Auschwitz on 10 April, then typed up by Oscar Krasniansky of the Slovak Jewish Council, who simultaneously translated it into German.

+Treblinka (Polish pronunciation: [trɛˈblʲinka]) was a German Nazi extermination camp[7] in German-occupied Poland during World War II near the village of Treblinka in the modern-day Masovian Voivodeship ofPoland. The camp, which was constructed as part of Operation Reinhard, operated between July 23, 1942 and October 19, 1943.[3] During this time, between 780,863 and 870,000 men, women and children were murdered at Treblinka.[4] This figure includes more than 800,000 Jews, as well as an undetermined number of Romani people.[8] Other estimates of the number killed at Treblinka exceed 1,000,000.

+Operation Reinhard (GermanAktion Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhard) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the General Government. The operation marked the most deadly phase of the Holocaust with the introduction of extermination camps. As many as two million people, almost all of whom were Jews, were sent to BełżecSobibor and Treblinka to be intentionally murdered.

+The Gerstein Report was written by Kurt Gerstein, an Obersturmführer (First Lieutenant) of the Waffen-SS in 1945 who rose to become the Head of Technical Disinfection Services of the SS. In that capacity he witnessed in August 1942 the gassing of some 3,000 Jews in the extermination camp of Belzec. The report details his eyewitness experience and was used as evidence in the Nuremberg Trials.

+"We Can Do It!" is an American wartime propaganda poster produced by J. Howard Miller in 1943 for Westinghouse Electric as an inspirational image to boost worker morale. The poster is generally thought to be based on a black-and-white wire service photograph taken of a Michigan factory worker named Geraldine Hoff.

+Ich bin ein guter Hirt (I am a good Shepherd), BWV 85, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach composed the cantata in Leipzig for the second Sunday after Easter and first performed it on 15 April 1725.

+Irene Fernandez (born 1946) is a Malaysian human rights activist. She is a PKR supreme council member [1]and the director and co-founder of the non-governmental organization Tenaganita, which promotes the rights of migrant workers and other oppressed and poor people in Malaysia.


+Trepanning, also known as trephinationtrephining or making a burr hole, is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura materto treat health problems related to intracranial diseases. It may also refer to any "burr" hole created through other body surfaces, including nail beds. It is often used to relieve pressure beneath a surface. A trephine is an instrument used for cutting out a round piece of skull bone.

+The legend of the green children of Woolpit concerns two children of unusual skin colour who reportedly appeared in the village of Woolpit in Suffolk, England, some time in the 12th century, perhaps during the reign of King Stephen. The children, brother and sister, were of generally normal appearance except for the green colour of their skin. They spoke in an unknown language, and the only food they would eat was green beans. Eventually they learned to eat other food and lost their green pallor, but the boy was sickly and died soon after the children were baptised. The girl adjusted to her new life, but she was considered to be "rather loose and wanton in her conduct".[2] After she learned to speak English the girl explained that she and her brother had come from St Martin's Land, an underground world whose inhabitants are green.

+Norbreck Castle Hotel is a large hotel located on Queens Promenade in the Norbreck area of BlackpoolLancashire England on the sea front. The hotel has 480 bedrooms and 22 conference suites including the Norcalympia Conference Centre.

+A khachkar or khatchkar also referred to as Armenian cross-stones (Armenianխաչքար, pronounced pronounced [χɑtʃʰˈkʰɑɾ], meaning cross-stone) is a carved, memorial stele bearing a cross, and often with additional motifs such as rosettes, interlaces, and botanical motifs.[1] Khachkars are characteristic of Medieval Christian Armenian art.

+Ethnoprimatology is the study of human and non-human primate interactions.+Titan is a supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a variety of science projects. Titan is an upgrade of Jaguar, a previous supercomputer at Oak Ridge, to usegraphics processing units (GPUs) in addition to conventional central processing units (CPUs), and is the first such hybrid to perform over 10 petaFLOPS.  It has 27 peteflops (27 thousand trillion calculations per second)  which is comparing to your average computer to do a math problem that would take 20 years to solve and the Titan would finish it in 1 hour.

+Operation Buster-Jangle was a series of seven (six atmospheric, one underground) nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in late 1951 at the Nevada Test Site. Buster-Jangle was the first joint test program between the DOD and Los Alamos National Laboratories. 6,500 troops were involved in the Desert Rock I, II, and III exercises in conjunction with the tests. The last two tests evaluated the cratering effects of low-yield nuclear devices. This series preceded Operation Tumbler-Snapper and followed Operation Greenhouse.

+Ancient Pueblo peoples or Ancestral Pueblo peoples were an ancient Native American culture centered on the present-day Four Corners area of the United States, comprising southern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.[1] They lived in a range of structures, including pit houses, pueblos, and cliff dwellings designed so that they could lift entry ladders during enemy attacks, which provided security. Archaeologists referred to one of these cultural groups as the Anasazi, although the term is not preferred by contemporary Pueblo peoples.

+The Pecos Classification is a division of all known Ancient Pueblo Peoples culture into chronological phases, based on changes in architectureartpottery, and cultural remains. The original classification dates back to consensus reached at a 1927archæological conference held in Pecos, New Mexico, which was organized by the United States archaeologist Alfred V. Kidder.

+Stegosaurus (pron.: /ˌstɛɡɵˈsɔrəs/, meaning "roof lizard" or "covered lizard" in reference to its bony plates[1]) is a genus of armored stegosaurid dinosaur. They lived during the Late Jurassic period(Kimmeridgian to early Tithonian), some 155 to 150 million years ago in what is now western North America. In 2006, a specimen of Stegosaurus was announced from Portugal, showing that they were present in Europe as well.[2] Due to its distinctive tail spikes and plates, Stegosaurus is one of the most recognizable dinosaurs. At least three species have been identified in the upper Morrison Formation and are known from the remains of about 80 individuals.

+Angkor Wat (Khmer: អង្គរវត្ត) is the largest Hindu temple complex and the largest religious monument in the world. The temple was built by a Tamil king Suryavarman II in the early 12th century inYasodharapura (Khmer: យសោធរបុរៈ, present-day Angkor), the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaivism tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation – first Hindu, dedicated to the god Vishnu, then Buddhist. The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia,[1] appearing on its national flag, and it is the country's prime attraction for visitors.

+The Ica stones are a collection of andesite stones that bear a variety of diagrams, including depictions of dinosaurs and what is alleged to be advanced technology. They are not considered to be genuine archeological artifacts but instead have been shown to be recently created by Peruvian locals as curiosities or hoaxes.

+Die Glocke (German for "The Bell") was a purported top secret Nazi scientific technological device, secret weapon, or Wunderwaffe. First described by Polish journalist and author Igor Witkowski in Prawda o Wunderwaffe (2000), it was later popularized by military journalist and author Nick Cook as well as by writers such as Joseph P. Farrell and Jeremy Robinson. Farrell, and others such as Peter Levenda, associates it with Nazi occultism and antigravity or free energyresearch.

+Goliath (HebrewגָּלְיָתModern Golyat Tiberian GolyāṯArabic: جالوت, Ǧālūt (Qur'anic term), جليات Ǧulyāt (Christian term)) or Goliath of Gath (one of five city states of the Philistines) is a giant Philistine warrior defeated by the young David, the future king of Israel, in bible's Books of Samuel (1 Samuel 17). The original purpose of the story was to show David's identity as the true king of Israel.[1] Post-Classical Jewish traditions stressed Goliath's status as the representative of paganism, in contrast to David, the champion of the God of Israel. Christian tradition gave him a distinctively Christian perspective, seeing in David's battle with Goliath the victory of God's King over the enemies of God's helpless people as a prefiguring of Jesus' victory over sin on the Cross and the Church's victory over Satan.

+Mirror writing is formed by writing in the direction that is the reverse of the natural way for a given language, such that the result is the mirror image of normal writing: it appears normal when it is reflected in a mirror. It is sometimes used as an extremely primitive form of cipher. The most common modern usage of mirror writing can be found on the front of ambulances, where the word "AMBULANCE" is often written in very large mirrored text, so that drivers see the word the right way around in their rear-view mirror.

+The Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Turkish: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye[4] Modern TurkishOsmanlı İmparatorluğu), also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state founded by Turkish tribes under Osman Bey in north-western Anatolia in 1299.[5] With the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453, the Ottoman state became an empire. The conquest of Constantinople was a pivotal event in the evolution of Turkish statehood, since the victory of 1453 cemented its Eurasian nature, which remains one of the essential characteristics ofModern Turkey. The empire reached its peak at 1590, covering parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. The reign of the long-lived Ottoman dynasty lasted for 623 years, from 27 July 1299[6][dn 2] to 1 November 1922, when the monarchy in Turkey was abolished

+The Nephilim (pron.: /ˈnɛfɨˌlɪm/) were the offspring of the "sons of God" and the "daughters of men" according to Genesis 6:4; and giants who inhabited Canaan according to Numbers 13:33. A similar biblical Hebrew word with different vowel-sounds is used in Ezekiel 32:27 to refer to dead Philistine warriors.

+The Philistines (pron.: /ˈfɪlɨstnz//ˈfɪlɨstnz//fɨˈlɪstɨnz/, or /fɨˈlɪstnz/;[1] HebrewפְּלִשְׁתִּיםPlištim), Pleshet or Peleset, were a people who as part of the Sea Peoples appeared in the southern coastal area of Canaan at the beginning of the Iron Age (circa 1175 BC), most probably from the Aegean region. According to the Bible, they ruled the five city-states (the "Philistine Pentapolis") of Gaza,AshkelonAshdodEkron and Gath, from Wadi Gaza in the south to the Yarqon River in the north, but with no fixed border to the east.[2] The Bible paints them as the Kingdom of Israel's most dangerous enemy.[2] Originating somewhere in the Aegean,[3] their population was around 25,000 in the 12th century BC, rising to a peak of 30,000 in the 11th century BC, of which the Aegean element was not more than half the total, and perhaps much less.

+Lysergic acid diethylamide, abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, also known as lysergide (INN) and colloquially as acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family, well known for its psychological effects which can include altered thinking processes, closed and open eye visuals, synesthesia, an altered sense of time and spiritual experiences, as well as for its key role in 1960s counterculture. It is used mainly as an entheogenrecreational drug, and as an agent in psychedelic therapy

+Kukulkan[pronunciation?] ("Plumed Serpent", "Feathered Serpent") is the name of a Maya snake deity that also serves to designate historical persons. The depiction of the feathered serpent deity is present in other cultures of Mesoamerica. Kukulkan is closely related to the god Q'uq'umatz of the K'iche' Maya and to Quetzalcoatl of the Aztecs.[1] Little is known of the mythology of this pre-Columbian deity.

+In astronomy, the Pleiades (pron.: /ˈpl.ədz/ or /ˈpl.ədz/), or Seven Sisters (Messier object 45 or M45), is an open star cluster containing middle-aged hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the nearest star clusters to Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky. The name Pleiades comes from Greek mythology; the celestial entity has several meanings in different cultures and traditions.

+The so-called Books of Chilam Balam[pronunciation?] are handwritten, chiefly 17th and 18th-centuries Maya miscellanies, named after the small Yucatec towns where they were originally kept, and preserving important traditional knowledge in which indigenous Maya and early Spanish traditions have coalesced. Written in the Yucatec Maya language and using the Latin alphabet, the manuscripts are attributed to a legendary author called Chilam Balam, a chilam being a priest who gives prophecies and balam a common surname meaning 'jaguar'. Some of the texts actually contain prophecies about the coming of the Spaniards to Yucatán while mentioning a chilam Balam as their first author.

+Popol Vuh (Popol Wuj [poˈpol wuχ] in modern K'iche') is a corpus of mytho-historical narratives of the Post Classic K'iche' kingdom in Guatemala's western highlands. The title translates as "Book of the Community", "Book of Counsel", or more literally as "Book of the People".[1] Popol Vuh's prominent features are its creation myth, its diluvian suggestion, its epic tales of the Hero Twins Hunahpú and Xbalanqué,[2] and its genealogies. The myth begins with the exploits of anthropomorphic ancestors and concludes with a regnal genealogy, perhaps as an assertion of rule by divine right.

+Comalcalco is both a modern-day city located in Comalcalco Municipality about 45 miles (60 km) northwest of Villahermosa in the Mexican state of Tabasco and a Pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site. The literal English translation of "Comalcalco" is "In the house of the comals". A comal is a pan used to prepare tortillas.

+Tortuguero (or El Tortuguero) is an archaeological site in southernmost TabascoMexico which supported a Maya city during the Classic period. The site is noteworthy for its use of the B'aakalemblem glyph also found as the primary title at Palenque.[1] The site has been heavily damaged by looting and modern development;[2] in the 1960s, a cement factory was built directly on top of the site.

+Nāga (IASTnāgá}}, IPA: [nəɡá]) is the Sanskrit and Pāli word for a deity or class of entity or being, taking the form of a very great snake, Sea serpent — specifically the king cobra, found in Hinduism andBuddhism. A female nāga is a nāgī or nāginī.

+The Olmec colossal heads are at least seventeen monumental stone representations of human heads sculpted from large basalt boulders. The heads date from at least before 900 BC and are a distinctive feature of the Olmec civilization of ancient Mesoamerica.[1] All portray mature men with fleshy cheeks, flat noses, and slightly crossed eyes; their physical characteristics correspond to a type that is still common among the inhabitants of Tabasco and Veracruz.

+La Venta is a pre-Columbian archaeological site of the Olmec civilization located in the present-day Mexican state of TabascoDr. Alexander von Wuthenau[3] was instrumental in investigating the terra cotta figurines and other artifacts related to the site. Some of the artifacts have been moved to the museum "Parque - Museo de La Venta", which is in Villahermosa, the capital of Tabasco.

+K'inich Janaab' Pakal[pronunciation?] (March 603 – August 683)[1] was ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque in the Late Classic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology. During a long reign of some 68 years Pakal was responsible for the construction or extension of some of Palenque's most notable surviving inscriptions and monumental architecture.

+The cataclysmic pole shift hypothesis suggests that there have been geologically rapid shifts in the relative positions of the modern-day geographic locations of the poles and the axis of rotation of the Earth, creating calamities such as floods and tectonic events.

+Gavrinis (BretonGavriniz) is a small island, situated in the Gulf of Morbihan in BrittanyFrance. It contains the Gavrinis tomb, a megalithic monument notable for its abundance ofmegalithic art in the European Neolithic. Administratively, it is part of the commune of Larmor-Baden.

+Leonhard Euler (German pronunciation: [ˈɔʏlɐ],   Swiss German pronunciation (help·info),   Standard German pronunciation (help·info), English approximation, "Oiler";[1] 15 April 1707 – 18 September 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.

+ It was conducted by Wendell Johnson at the University of Iowa. Johnson chose one of his graduate students, Mary Tudor, to conduct the experiment and he supervised her research. After placing the children in control and experimental groups, Tudor gave positive speech therapy to half of the children, praising the fluency of their speech, and negative speech therapy to the other half, belittling the children for every speech imperfection and telling them they were stutterers. Many of the normal speaking orphan children who received negative therapy in the experiment suffered negative psychological effects and some retained speech problems for the rest of their lives. Dubbed "The Monster Study" by some of Johnson's peers, who were horrified that he would experiment on orphan children to prove a hypothesis, the experiment was kept hidden for fear Johnson's reputation would be tarnished in the wake of human experiments conducted by the Nazis during World War II. The University of Iowa publicly apologized for the Monster Study in 2001.

+ Vladimir Gavreau (born in Russia as Vladimir Gavronsky) was a French scientist making experiments on the biological effects of infrasound. His interest in infrasonic waves first came about in his lab during the 1960s where he and his lab assistants experienced pain in the ear drums and shaking lab equipment, but no audible sound was picked up on his microphones. He concluded it was infrasound and soon got to work preparing tests in the labs. One of his experiments was an infrasonic whistle that some say has led to a line of research that has military applications. Author William S. Burroughs described the possibly fictional device as follows:

"In developing a military weapon, scientists intend to revert to a policeman's whistle form, perhaps as big as eighteen feet across, mount it on a truck and blow it with a fan turned by a small airplane engine. This weapon, they say, will give forth an all-destroying 10,000 acoustic watts. It could kill a man five miles away. There is one snag: at present, the machine is as dangerous to its operators as to the enemy. The team is working on a way to focus it. Various systems of baffles have been tried, but the most promising method appears to be propagation of a different and complementary sound a wave length backward from the machine. This changes the frequency of airwave length moving in that direction, thus protecting anyone to the rear. There is, of course, a much simpler means of protection: turn the machine on from a safe distance. This summary of Professor Vladimir Gavreau's experiments with infrasound is based on the Sunday Times article.[1] A much more comprehensive article has appeared in an American periodical, The National Enquirer, Vol.42, No. 27, March 10, 1968. Professor Gavreau's discovery has been patented and anybody can obtain the plans and full description from the French patent office upon payment of two francs."


+Donald Ewen Cameron (24 December 1901 – 8 September 1967),[1] commonly referred to as "D. Ewen Cameron" or "Ewen Cameron," was a 20th-century Scottish-born psychiatrist involved in the United States Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA's) MKULTRA mind control program [2], which CIA head Sidney Gottlieb ultimately dismissed as "useless." [3][4] Cameron served as President of the Canadian,American and World Psychiatric Associations, the American Psychopathological Association and the Society of Biological Psychiatry during the 1950s. Notwithstanding a career of honors, and leadership in early 1950s psychiatric circles, he has been heavily criticized in some circles for his administration without patient consent of disproportionately-intense electroshock therapy and experimental drugs, including LSD, which caused some patients to become permanently comatose.


+António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 November 1874 – 13 December 1955), known as Egas Moniz (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈɛɣɐʒ muˈniʃ]), was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography. He is sometimes regarded as the founder of modern psychosurgery,[1] and developing the surgical procedure termed leucotomy (also known as lobotomy), for which he became the first Portuguese national to receive a Nobel Prize in 1949 (shared with Walter Rudolf Hess).[2] He held academic positions, wrote many medical articles and also served in several legislative and diplomatic posts in the Portuguese government. In 1911 he became professor of neurology in Lisbon until his retirement in 1944. At the same time, he pursued a demanding political career.

+Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov ForMemRS[1] (Russian: Никола́й Ива́нович Вави́лов) (November 25 [O.S. November 13] 1887 – January 26, 1943) was a prominent Russian and Soviet botanist and geneticistbest known for having identified the centres of origin of cultivated plants. He devoted his life to the study and improvement of wheatcorn, and other cereal crops that sustain the global population.

+Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (June 7, 1862 – May 20, 1947), was a German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of many of their properties. He was also an active proponent of Nazi ideology. Lenard is remembered today as a strong German nationalist who despised English physics, which he considered as having stolen its ideas from Germany. He joined the National Socialist Party before it became politically necessary or popular to do so. During the Nazi regime, he was the outspoken proponent of the idea that Germany should rely on "Deutsche Physik" and ignore what he considered the fallacious and deliberately misleading ideas of "Jewish physics", by which he meant chiefly the theories of Albert Einstein, including "the Jewish fraud" of relativity (see also Criticism of relativity theory). An advisor to Adolf Hitler, Lenard became Chief of Aryan physics under the Nazis.

+The Kerala red rain phenomenon was a blood rain (red rain) event that occurred from July 25 to September 23, 2001, when red-coloured rain sporadically fell on the southern Indian state of Kerala. Heavy downpours occurred in which the rain was colored red, staining clothes pink.[1] Yellow, green, and black rain was also reported.[2][3][4] Colored rain had been reported in Kerala as early as 1896 and several times since then,[5] most recently in June 2012.[6][7]It was initially thought that the rains were colored by fallout from a hypothetical meteor burst, but a study commissioned by the Government of India concluded that the rains had been colored by airbornespores from locally prolific terrestrial algae.[5]It was not until early 2006 that the colored rains of Kerala gained widespread attention when the popular media reported that Godfrey Louis and Santhosh Kumar of the Mahatma Gandhi University inKottayam proposed a controversial argument that the colored particles were extraterrestrial cells.[3][8][9]Red rains were also reported from November 15, 2012 to December 27, 2012 occasionally in eastern and north-central provinces of Sri Lanka,[10] where scientists from the Sri Lanka Medical Research Institute (MRI) are investigating to ascertain their cause.

+Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 – November 11, 1938), better known as Typhoid Mary, was the first person in the United States identified as an asymptomatic carrier of the pathogen associated withtyphoid fever. She was presumed to have infected some 51 people, three of whom died, over the course of her career as a cook.[1] She was forcibly isolated twice by public health authorities and died after a total of nearly three decades in isolation.

+The Piltdown Man was a hoax in which bone fragments were presented as the fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human. These fragments consisted of parts of a skull andjawbone, said to have been collected in 1912 from a gravel pit at Piltdown, East Sussex, England. The Latin name Eoanthropus dawsoni ("Dawson's dawn-man", after the collector Charles Dawson) was given to the specimen. The significance of the specimen remained the subject of controversy until it was exposed in 1953 as a forgery, consisting of the lower jawbone of anorangutan deliberately combined with the skull of a fully developed modern human. The Piltdown hoax is perhaps the most famous paleoanthropological hoax ever to have been perpetrated. It is prominent for two reasons: the attention paid to the issue of human evolution, and the length of time (more than 40 years) that elapsed from its discovery to its full exposure as a forgery.

+The Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT), was a research institute created in 1926, at first specializing in aeronautics research. In 1930, Hungarian scientist Theodore von Kármán accepted the directorship of the lab and emigrated to the United States. Under his leadership, work on rockets began there in 1936.[1] GALCIT was the first—and from 1936 to 1940 the only—university-based rocket research center.[2] Based on GALCIT's JATOproject at the time, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was established under a contract with the United States Army in November 1943.

+Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical regions of CrişanaMaramureş, and Romanian part of Banat.Transylvania is often associated with vampires [1][2][3] (chiefly due to Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and its film adaptations) and the horror genre in general, while the region is also known for the scenic beauty of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history.

+Westsylvania was a proposed state of the United States located primarily in what is now western Pennsylvania and West Virginia. First proposed early in the American Revolution, Westsylvania would have been the fourteenth state in the newly formed United States had it been recognized.

+"Pennsyltucky" is a slang portmanteau used to characterize— usually humorously, but sometimes deprecatingly— the rural and exurban part of the state of Pennsylvania outside the Pittsburgh andPhiladelphia metropolitan areas, more specifically applied to the mountainous central region.

+Kanawha was a proposed name for what later became the main body of the U.S. state of West Virginia, formed on October 24, 1861. It consisted of most of the northwestern counties of Virginia, which voted to secede from Virginia after Virginia joined the Confederate States of America on April 17, 1861 at the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865).

+The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that runs a length of roughly 810 miles (1,300 km) through California in the United States. The fault's motion is right-lateral strike-slip (horizontal motion). It forms the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The fault was first identified in Northern California by the UC Berkeley geology professor Andrew Lawson in 1895 and named by him after a small lake which lies in a linear valley formed by the fault just south of San Francisco, the Laguna de San Andreas. After the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, Lawson also discovered that the San Andreas Fault stretched southward into southern California. Large-scale (hundreds of miles) lateral movement along the fault was first proposed in a 1953 paper by geologists Mason Hill and Thomas Dibblee

.+ The Kentucky Bend, variously called the New Madrid Bend, Madrid Bend, Bessie Bend, or Bubbleland,[1] is an exclave of Fulton County, Kentucky, in the United States. Kentucky Bend is a piece of land on the inside of an oxbow loop meander of the Mississippi River. It is surrounded by the states of Tennessee and Missouri. Because it is surrounded by two (rather than one) 'foreign' states, Kentucky Bend is not (as it is sometimes called) an enclave.

+John Whiteside Parsons (born Marvel Whiteside Parsons; October 2, 1914 – June 17, 1952), better known as Jack Parsons, was an American rocket propulsion researcher at the California Institute of Technology and a pioneer in solid rocket fuel research and development. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Aerojet Corp. Parsons was also an occultist and one of the first Americans to take a keen interest in the writings of English author and Thelema's founder Aleister Crowley. In this capacity, he joined and eventually led an American lodge of Crowley's magical order, Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.)

+Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.) (Order of the Temple of the East) is an international fraternal and religious organization founded at the beginning of the 20th century. English author and occultist Aleister Crowley has become the best-known member of the order. Originally it was intended to be modelled after and associated with Freemasonry,[1] but under the leadership of Aleister Crowley, O.T.O. was reorganized around the Law of Thelema as its central religious principle. This Law—expressed as “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law"[2] and "Love is the law, love under will”[3]—was promulgated in 1904 with the writing of The Book of the Law. Similar to many secret societies, O.T.O. membership is based on an initiatory system with a series of degree ceremonies that use ritual drama to establish fraternal bonds and impart spiritual and philosophical teachings. O.T.O. also includes the Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica (EGC) or Gnostic Catholic Church, which is the ecclesiastical arm of the Order. Its central rite, which is public, is called Liber XV, or the Gnostic Mass.

+Thelema (pron.: /θəˈlmə/; Koine Greek: [θélima]) is a spiritual philosophy or religion[1] that was developed[2] by the early 20th century British writer and ceremonial magician, Aleister Crowley. He came to believe himself to be the prophet of a new age, the Æon of Horus,[3] based upon a spiritual experience that he and his wife, Rose Edith, had in Egypt in 1904.[1] By his account, a possibly non-corporeal or "praeterhuman" being that called itself Aiwass contacted him and dictated a text known as The Book of the Law or Liber AL vel Legis, which outlined the principles of Thelema.[1][4] An adherent of Thelema is a Thelemite. The Thelemic pantheon includes a number of deities focusing primarily on a trinity of deities adapted from ancient Egyptian religion, who are the three speakers of The Book of the Law: Nuit, Hadit and Ra-Hoor-Khuit. The religion is founded upon the idea that the 20th century marked the beginning of the Aeon of Horus, in which a new ethical code would be followed; "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law". This statement indicates that adherents, who are known as Thelemites, should seek out and follow their own true path in life, known as their True Will[5] rather than their egoic desires.[6] The philosophy also emphasizes the ritual practice of Magick.

+Aleister Crowley (/ˈkrli/ KROH-lee; 12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947), born Edward Alexander Crowley, and also known as both Frater Perdurabo and The Great Beast 666, was an English occultist, mystic, ceremonial magician, poet and mountaineer, who was responsible for founding the religious philosophy of Thelema. In his role as the founder of the Thelemite philosophy, he came to see himself as the prophet who was entrusted with informing humanity that it was entering the new Aeon of Horus in the early 20th century.

+The Peenemünde Army Research Center (German: Heeresversuchsanstalt Peenemünde, HVP) was founded in 1937 as one of five military proving grounds under the Army Weapons Office (Heeres Waffenamt).[1]:85 It is the birthplace of modern rocketry - and thus, in a broader sense, also the origin of aerospace engineering.

+The Piltdown Man was a hoax in which bone fragments were presented as the fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human. These fragments consisted of parts of a skull and jawbone, said to have been collected in 1912 from a gravel pit at Piltdown, East Sussex, England. The Latin name Eoanthropus dawsoni ("Dawson's dawn-man", after the collector Charles Dawson) was given to the specimen. The significance of the specimen remained the subject of controversy until it was exposed in 1953 as a forgery, consisting of the lower jawbone of an orangutan deliberately combined with the skull of a fully developed modern human.

+Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 – November 11, 1938), better known as Typhoid Mary, was the first person in the United States identified as an asymptomatic carrier of the pathogen associated with typhoid fever. She was presumed to have infected some 51 people, three of whom died, over the course of her career as a cook.[1] She was forcibly isolated twice by public health authorities and died after a total of nearly three decades in isolation.

+Sara Josephine Baker (November 15, 1873 – February 22, 1945) was an American physician notable for making contributions to public health, especially in New York City. She is best known for (twice) tracking down the infamous index case known as Typhoid Mary, as well as vastly improving hygiene in the immigrant communities of Hell's Kitchen.

+The PS General Slocum was a passenger steamboat built in Brooklyn, New York, in 1891. The General Slocum was named for Civil War General and New York Congressman Henry Warner Slocum. She operated in the New York City area as an excursion steamer for the next thirteen years under the same ownership. During her service history, she was involved in a number of mishaps, including multiple groundings and collisions. On June 15, 1904, the General Slocum caught fire and sank in New York's East River.[1] At the time of the accident she was on a chartered run carrying members of St. Mark's Evangelical Lutheran Church (German Americans from Little Germany, Manhattan) to a church picnic. An estimated 1,021 of the 1,342 people on board died. The General Slocum disaster was the New York area's worst disaster in terms of loss of life until the September 11, 2001 attacks, and remains the worst maritime disaster in the city's history.[2] The events surrounding the General Slocum fire have appeared in a number of books, plays and movies.

+North Brother Island is an island in the East River situated between the Bronx and Riker's Island. Its companion, South Brother Island, is a short distance away. Together, the two Brother Islands, North and South, have a land area of 20.12 acres (81,400 m2). The island was uninhabited until 1885, when Riverside Hospital moved there from Blackwell's Island (now known as Roosevelt Island). Riverside Hospital was founded in the 1850s as the Smallpox Hospital to treat and isolate victims of that disease. Its mission eventually expanded to other quarantinable diseases.

+The Sloane Hospital for Women is the obstetrics and gynecology service within New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City.

+The Palitana temples of Jainism are located on Mount Shatrunjaya, by the city of Palitana, in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India. The city of the same name, known previously as Padliptapur, has been nicknamed "City of Temples".

+Lonsdaleite (named in honour of Kathleen Lonsdale), also called hexagonal diamond in reference to the crystal structure, is an allotrope of carbon with a hexagonal lattice. In nature, it forms when meteorites containing graphite strike the Earth. The great heat and stress of the impact transforms the graphite into diamond, but retains graphite's hexagonal crystal lattice. Lonsdaleite was first identified in 1967 from the Canyon Diablo meteorite, where it occurs as microscopic crystals associated with diamond.


+Khoulou (Greek: Χούλου) is a village in the Paphos District of Cyprus, located 6 km west of Agios Fotios.

+The September Six were six members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints who were excommunicated or disfellowshipped by the LDS Church (also known as the Mormons) in September 1993, allegedly for publishing scholarly work on Mormonism or critiquing Church doctrine or leadership.

+Agustín Enrique Brincourt was a General of the Imperial French Army during the French Intervention of Mexico.

+An ion drift meter is a device used to measure the velocity of individual ions in the area of a spacecraft.

+Giovanni Battista Caprara Montecuccoli (1733 – 1810) was an Italian statesman and cardinal and archbishop of Milan from 1802 to 1810. Legate of Pius VII in France, he implemented the Concordat of 1801.

+The Selkirk Hurdle is the term used by urban plannersrailroad employees, politicians and others to describe the route that must be taken by freight trains traveling between New York City or other points in downstate New York and points in the United States west of the Hudson River.

+Metamizole sodium or dipyrone is a powerful analgesic and antipyretic.

+Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian: Ива́н Петро́вич Па́влов; 26 September [O.S. 14 September] 1849 – 27 February 1936) was a famous Russian physiologist. From his childhood days Pavlov demonstrated intellectual brilliance along with an unusual energy which he named "the instinct for research".[1] Inspired when the progressive ideas which D. I. Pisarev, the most eminent of the Russian literary critics of the 1860s and I. M. Sechenov, the father of Russian physiology, were spreading, Pavlov abandoned his religious career and decided to devote his life to science. In 1870 he enrolled in the physics and mathematics faculty at the University of Saint Petersburg to take the course in natural science.[2] Ivan Pavlov devoted his life to the study of physiology and sciences, making several remarkable discoveries and ideas that were passed on from generation to generation.[3] He won the Nobel Prize for physiology in 1904.

+USAAF Bat-bomb canister later used to house the hibernating bats. Ideally, the canister would be dropped from high altitude over the target area, and as the bomb fell (slowed by a parachute), the bats would warm up and awaken. At 1,000 ft. altitude, the bomb would open and over a thousand bats, each carrying a tiny time-delayed napalm incendiary device, would fly in a 20-40 mile radius and roost in flammable wooden Japanese buildings. The napalm devices would ignite simultaneously, and thousands of small fires would flare up at once.

+Thomas Stoltz Harvey (October 10, 1912 – April 5, 2007) was a pathologist who conducted the autopsy on Albert Einstein in 1955. Harvey studied at Yale University as an undergraduate and later as a medical student under Dr. Harry Zimmerman. In his third year of medical school he contracted tuberculosis and was bedridden for the next year in a sanatorium, claiming it to be one of the biggest disappointments of his life.

+Horace Wells (January 21, 1815 – January 24, 1848) was an American dentist who pioneered the use of anaesthesia in dentistry, specifically nitrous oxide (or laughing gas).

+Philip George Zimbardo (born March 23, 1933) is a psychologist and a professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is president of the Heroic Imagination Project. He is known for his Stanford prison study

+Louis Alexander Slotin (1 December 1910 – 30 May 1946) was a Canadian physicist and chemist who took part in the Manhattan Project, the secret U.S. program during World War II that developed the atomic bomb. As part of the project, Slotin performed experiments with uranium and plutonium cores to determine their critical mass values. During World War II, Slotin continued his research at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

+According to the Early Office Museum, the first patent for a bent wire paper clip was awarded in the United States to Samuel B. Fay, in 1867.

+Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov (Russian: Илья́ Ива́нович Ивано́в, August 1 [O.S. July 20] 1870-March 20, 1932) was a Russian and Soviet biologist who specialized in the field of artificial insemination and theinterspecific hybridization of animals. He was involved in controversial attempts to create a human-ape hybrid.

+Starfish Prime was a high-altitude nuclear test conducted by the United States of America on July 9, 1962, a joint effort of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Defense Atomic Support Agency (which became the Defense Nuclear Agency in 1971).

+Alien hand syndrome, sometimes used synonymously with anarchic hand or Dr Strangelove syndrome,[1] is a neurological disorder in which the afflicted person's hand appears to take on a mind of its own. Alien hand syndrome is best documented in cases where a person has had the two hemispheres of their brain surgically separated, a procedure sometimes used to relieve the symptoms of extreme cases of epilepsy.

+Lost Cosmonauts, or Phantom Cosmonauts, is a conspiracy theory alleging that Soviet cosmonauts entered outer space, but without their existence having been acknowledged by either the Soviet or Russian space authorities.

+"Gloomy Sunday" is a song composed by Hungarian pianist and composer Rezső Seress and published in 1933, as "Vége a világnak" ("End of the world").[1] Lyrics were written by László Jávor, and in his version the song was retitled "Szomorú vasárnap" (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈsomoruː ˈvɒʃaːrnɒp]) ("Sad Sunday"). The song was first recorded in Hungarian by Pál Kalmár in 1935.

+Robert E. Cornish (December 21, 1903 – March 6, 1963) was a child prodigy graduating from the University of California, Berkeley with honors at the age of eighteen and receiving a doctorate by the time he was twenty-two. He worked on various projects including one that allowed for reading newspapers under water with special lenses. In 1932 he became interested in the idea that he could restore life to the dead.

+Louis Pasteur (pron.: /ˈli pæˈstɜr/, French: [lwi pastœʁ]; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist who was one of the most important founders of medical microbiology.

+Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development for synthesizing ammonia, important for fertilizers andexplosives.

+Dr. J. William Langston is the founder, CEO, and Scientific Director of the Parkinson's Institute. He is a graduate of the University of Missouri School of Medicine and chairman of neurology at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center in San Jose, California.

+On 15 February 1921, as the American surgeon Evan O’Neill Kane lay on a table in a hospital waiting to have his appendix removed, he decided to conduct an impromptu experiment — to find out whether it would be possible to remove his own appendix. So he sat up and announced that everyone should step back because he was going to perform the operation himself. Since he was the chief surgeon at the hospital, the staff reluctantly obeyed his strange command.      (AND DOWN UNTIL THE FONT CHANGES)

+In 1800, Alessandro Volta announced his invention of the Voltaic pile — the world’s first electric battery that allowed for a continuous, steady, and strong flow of electric current.

+As a teenager, Frederick Hoelzel adopted a strange method of weight-loss. He curbed his appetite by eating non-caloric food substitutes such as corn cobs, sawdust, cork, feathers, asbestos, rayon, and banana stems. His favorite meal was surgical cotton cut up into small pieces, which became part of his daily diet.

+Throughout his career, Cambridge physiologist Joseph Barcroft conducted self-experiments in which he pushed himself to the very edge of insanity and death. He referred to these as his "borderland excursions". A decade later Barcroft sealed himself inside an airtight glass chamber to test the effects of living in a low-oxygen environment. After six days in an atmosphere equivalent to that found at an altitude of 16000 feet, his entire body turned blue.

+The Nebraska proctologist Edwin Katskee gave himself a large injection of cocaine on the night of 25 November 1936. He then recorded the clinical course of his symptoms in notes written on the wall of his office. As it turned out, the amount of cocaine he gave himself was so large it proved fatal. The media described his note-filled wall as his "death diary".

+On 10 October 1878, the Sicilian doctor Giovanni Battista Grassi was conducting an autopsy when he found the large intestine of the corpse to be riddled with tapeworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and their eggs. Grassi immediately realized he could ingest some of the eggs and prove it was possible to infect oneself with tapeworms in this way. Finally, on 20 July 1879, he felt confident he was free of worms, so he spooned 100 of the eggs out of their faecal home and swallowed them down. A month later, much to his pleasure, Grassi experienced intestinal discomfort and then found tapeworm eggs in his stool. His experiment was a success.

+Animal magnetism (French: magnétisme animal; Latin: magnetismus animalis) is a term proposed by Franz Mesmer in the 18th century. The term 'magnetism' was adopted by analogy, referring to some interpersonal and general effects of reciprocal influence and/or entanglement he observed.[1] Mesmer attributed such effects to a supposed 'life energy' or 'fluid' or ethereal medium believed to reside in the bodies ofanimate beings (i.e., those who breathe).

+Theodore John "TedKaczynski (pron.: /kəˈzɪnski/ ka-zin-skee, or ka-chin-skeePolishKaczyński, pronounced [kaˈt͡ʂɨȷ̃skʲi]; born May 22, 1942), also known as the "Unabomber", is an Americanterroristmathematiciansocial criticanarchist, and Neo-Luddite.[2] Between 1978 and 1995, Kaczynski engaged in a nation-wide bombing campaign against modern technology, planting or mailingnumerous home-made bombs, killing three people and injuring 23 others.

+The Burke and Hare murders (also known as the West Port murders) were a series of murders perpetrated in EdinburghScotland over a period of about ten months in 1828. The killings were attributed to Irish immigrants William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses of their 16 victims to Doctor Robert Knox as dissection material for his well-attended anatomy lectures. Burke and Hare's accomplices were Burke's mistress, Helen McDougal, and Hare's wife, Margaret Laird.[1] From their method of killing their victims came the word "burking", meaning to smother and compress the chest of a murder victim, and a derived meaning, to suppress something quietly.

+The theremin /ˈθɛrəmɪn/,[1] originally known as the ætherphone/etherphonethereminophone[2] or termenvox/thereminvox is an early electronic musical instrument controlled without discernible physical contact from the player.

+John Bosley ZieglerJohn ZieglerMontana Jack, (circa 1920 - 1983) was an American physician who originally developed the anabolic steroid Methandrostenolone (Dianabol, DBOL) which was released in the USA in 1958 by Ciba.[1][2] He pioneered its athletic use as an aid to muscle growth by bodybuilders, administering it to U.S. weightlifting champion Bill March of the York Barbell club in 1959 when he was the physician to the U.S. Weightlifting team.

+Operation Iskra (Russian: операция «Искра», operatsiya Iskra; English: Operation Spark) was a Soviet military operation during World War II, designed to break the German Wehrmacht'sSiege of Leningrad.

+The kwacha (ISO 4217: MWK) is the currency of Malawi as of 1971, replacing the Malawian pound

+Abū Hilāl al-Dayhūri was a Manichaean leader. Of North African origin, he served as archegos, the traditional leader of the Manichaean sect seated in Seleucia-Ctesiphon some time during the mid-to-late eighth century.

+Zaoksky Adventist University is a private coeducational Christian university located in Tula Oblast of Russia, and is operated by the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

+Aryabhata was India's first satellite, named after the great Indian astronomer of the same name.[1] It was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975 fromKapustin Yar using a Cosmos-3M launch vehicle.

+Beefsteak Club is the name or nickname of several 18th and 19th century male dining clubs that celebrated the beefsteak as a symbol of patriotic and often Whig concepts of liberty and prosperity. The first beefsteak club was founded about 1705 in London by the actor Richard Estcourt and others in the arts and politics. This club flourished for less than a decade. The Sublime Society of Beef Steaks was established in 1735 by another performer, John Rich, at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, where he was then manager, and George Lambert, his scenic artist, with two dozen members of the theatre and arts community (Samuel Johnson joined in 1780).

+The Bilderberg GroupBilderberg conference, or Bilderberg Club is an annual invitation-only conference of approximately 120 to 140 guests from North America and Western Europe, most of whom are people of influence.[2][3] About one-third are from government and politics, and two-thirds from finance, industry, labour, education and communications.[2] Meetings are closed to the public.

+Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga (鳥獣人物戯画?, lit. "Animal-person Caricatures"), commonly shortened to Chōjū-giga (鳥獣戯画?, lit. "Animal Caricatures") is a famous set of four picture scrolls, oremakimono, belonging to Kōzan-ji temple in KyotoJapan. The Chōjū-giga scrolls are also referred to as Scrolls of Frolicking Animals and Scrolls of Frolicking Animals and Humans in English. Some think that Toba Sōjō created the scrolls, however it is hard to verify this.

+There are 6 members. Six. Membership is not limited by money, background, or a cap on the number of members allowed in. Yet, as of right now, there are six members; two in the United States and four in Europe. Why so few? It might have something to do with the fact that you have to be smarter than .999999999 of the population to join. According to their own web site this means “in theory one in a billion individuals can qualify”. To do so you have to score more than a 195 on one of their accepted IQ tests, which, frankly, sounds pretty hard to do.

+Currently there are 1,410 members worldwide. In order to join the Shooting Times Woodcock club you must “achieve a right-and-left at woodcock [without lowering your gun] before two witnesses“. By all accounts this is a difficult feat, a sign of a true sportsman excelling under difficult conditions, not impossible but rare, similar to a hole-in-one in golf. Ok, sounds logical enough so far. Oh, but the club was originally founded as a promotional exercise — for a whiskey. It continues to be sponsored by various whiskey brands to the present day. The current president asks, “What better tipple for a true rough shooter to put in his hip flask on the coldest of days?” The answer– coffee. Tea. Cocoa. Anything warm that isn’t 80 proof when you have a gun and two witnesses on hand. 

+The Trilateral Commission is a non-governmental, non-partisan discussion group founded by David Rockefeller in July 1973, to[citation needed] foster closer cooperation among the United StatesEuropeand Japan. Others such as Noam Chomsky have described the Trilateral Commission's goals in less glowing terms: "essentially liberal internationalists from Europe, Japan and the United States, the liberal wing of the intellectual elite. That’s where Jimmy Carter’s whole government came from. [...] [The Trilateral Commission] was concerned with trying to induce what they called ‘more moderation in democracy’ – turn people back to passivity and obedience so they don’t put so many constraints on state power and so on.

+The Bilderberg GroupBilderberg conference, or Bilderberg Club is an annual invitation-only conference of approximately 120 to 140 guests from North America and Western Europe, most of whom are people of influence.[2][3] About one-third are from government and politics, and two-thirds from finance, industry, labour, education and communications.[2] Meetings are closed to the public.

+Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Владимир Ильич Ленин; IPA: [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr ɪlʲˈjitɕ ˈlʲenʲɪn] (  listen); born Vladimir Ilyich UlyanovRussian: Владимир Ильич Ульянов; 22 April [O.S. 10 April] 1870 – 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as the leader of the Russian SFSR from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, until his death. Politically a Marxist, his theoretical contributions to Marxist thought are known as Leninism, which coupled with Marxian economic theory have collectively come to be known asMarxism–Leninism.

+Marxian economics refers to theories on the functioning of capitalism based on the works of Karl Marx. Adherents of Marxian economics, particularly in academia, distinguish it from Marxism as a political ideology and sociological theory, arguing that Marx's approach to understanding the economy is intellectually independent of his advocacy of revolutionary socialism or his support of proletarianrevolution.

+George Foster Peabody (July 27, 1852 in Columbus, Georgia - March 4, 1938 in Warm Springs, Georgia) was a banker and philanthropist.

+In foreign affairs, deterrence refers to the use of the threat of military action to compel an adversary to do something, or to prevent them from doing something, that another state desires. Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons

+Vuelta was a Mexican literary magazine, founded by poet Octavio Paz in 1976 following the controversial dismantling of the workers' cooperative that ran the daily newspaper Excélsior. It ceased publication following Paz's death in 1998.

+Iapetognathus fluctivagus is a species of denticulate cordylodan conodonts belonging to the genus Iapetognathus. It existed during the Tremadocian Age (485.4 ± 1.9 million years ago) of the Ordovician. It is an important index fossil in biostratigraphy.

+In UK politics, the Parliamentary Labour Party (PLP) is the parliamentary party of the Labour Party in Parliament: Labour MPs as a collective body.

+The Armeesportvereinigung Vorwärts (Army Sports Club Forward), briefly ASV Vorwärts , was the sport organization of the German Democratic Republic's National People's Army (NVA) and its predecessor, the Barracked People's Police (Kasernierte Volkspolizei).

+Alien hand syndrome, sometimes used synonymously with anarchic hand or Dr Strangelove syndrome,[1] is a neurological disorder in which the afflicted person's hand appears to take on a mind of its own. Alien hand syndrome is best documented in cases where a person has had the two hemispheres of their brain surgically separated, a procedure sometimes used to relieve the symptoms of extreme cases of epilepsy.

+Schizotypal personality disorder is a personality disorder characterized by a need for social isolation, anxiety in social situations, odd behavior and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs. People with this disorder feel extreme discomfort with maintaining close relationships with people, and therefore they often do not.

+FROSTBURG was a Connection Machine 5 (CM-5) supercomputer used by the US National Security Agency (NSA) to perform higher-level mathematical calculations. The CM-5 was built by the Thinking Machines Corporation, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, at a cost of US$25 million. The system was installed at NSA in 1991, and operated until 1997. It was the first massively parallel processing computer bought by NSA, originally containing 256 processing nodes. The system was upgraded in 1993 with an additional 256 nodes, for a total of 512 nodes.

+Kecksburg is an unincorporated community in Mount Pleasant TownshipWestmoreland CountyPennsylvania. It is located along PA Route 982 in a heavily wooded area about 30 miles southeast ofPittsburgh at an elevation of 1,209 feet. On December 9, 1965 a large, brilliant fireball was seen by thousands in at least six states and Ontario, Canada. It streaked over the Detroit, Michigan/Windsor, Ontario area, dropped metal debris over Michigan and northern Ohio, and caused sonic booms in Western Pennsylvania. The fireball landed in the woods just outside Kecksburg and was reportedly acorn-shaped. Some speculated that it was a UFO, however the United States government officially stated that it was just a meteor. A large bell-shaped metallic object was made by Unsolved Mysteries for their story on the incident. After the story aired, the show donated the model to the town, and it was placed upon a three-legged wooden pedestal at the local fire department. The model was taken indoors for a time, however it is now back outside on a new metal pedestal lit with spotlights.

+A psychoactive drugpsychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that crosses the blood–brain barrier and acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it affects brainfunction, resulting in alterations in perceptionmoodconsciousnesscognition, and behavior.

+Vātsyāyana is the name of a Hindu philosopher in the Vedic tradition who is believed to have lived during time of the Gupta Empire (4th to 6th centuries CE) in India. His name appears as the author of theKama Sutra and of Nyāya Sutra Bhāshya, the first commentary on Gotama's Nyāya Sutras.

+The Adelaide leak was the revelation to the press of a dressing-room incident during the third cricket Test match of the 1932–33 Ashes series between Australia and England, more commonly known as theBodyline series. During the course of play on 14 January 1933, the Australian Test captain Bill Woodfull was struck over the heart by a ball delivered by Harold Larwood. Although not badly hurt, Woodfull was shaken and dismissed shortly afterwards. 

+Aokigahara (青木ヶ原?), also known as the Sea of Trees (樹海 Jukai?), is a 35-square-kilometre (14 sq mi) forest that lies at the northwest base of Mount Fuji in Japan. The forest is a popular place for suicides, reportedly the most popular in Japan and second in the world after San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge.[5][6] Statistics vary, but what is documented is that during the period leading up to 1988, about 100 suicides occurred there every year.[7]

In 2002, 78 bodies were found in the forest, exceeding the previous record of 74 in 1998.[1][8] In 2003, the rate climbed to 100, and in recent years, the local government has stopped publicizing the numbers in an attempt to downplay Aokigahara's association with suicide.[9] In 2004, 108 people killed themselves in the forest. In 2010, 247 people attempted suicide in the forest, 54 of whom completed the act.[2] Suicides are said to increase during March, the end of the fiscal year in Japan.[10] As of 2011, the most popular means of suicide in the forest were hanging and drug overdoses.[11] The high rate of suicide has led officials to place signs in the forest, in Japanese and English, urging suicidal visitors to seek help and not kill themselves. The annual body search, consisting of a small army of police, volunteers, and attendant journalists, began in 1970. The site's popularity has been attributed to the 1960 novel lit., "Tower of Waves" (波の塔?) by Seichō Matsumoto.[15] However, the history of suicide in Aokigahara predates the novel's publication, and the place has long been associated with death:ubasute may have been practiced there into the nineteenth century, and the forest is reputedly haunted by the Yūrei (angry spirits) of those left to die.

+Khutyn Monastery of Saviour's Transfiguration and of St. Varlaam (Russian: Хутынский Спасо-Преображенский Варлаамиев монастырь) used to be the holiest monastery of the medievalNovgorod Republic. The monastery is situated on the right bank of the Volkhov River some 10 km north northeast of Velikiy Novgorod, in the village of Khutyn, whose name is perhaps derived from the Russian "khudoi" (худой) meaning "ill, bad, or poor," possibly suggesting that the village or the region around it was an evil place, or a poor area among the marshes and near the river.

+Evil May Day or Ill May Day is the name of a riot which took place in 1517 as a protest against foreigners living in London. Within a few hours approximately a thousand young male apprentices had congregated in Cheapside. The mob freed several prisoners who were locked up for attacking foreigners and proceeded to St Martin le Grand, a privileged liberty north of St Paul's Cathedral where numerous foreigners lived. Here they were met by the under-sheriff of London, Thomas More, who attempted in vain to persuade them to return to their homes. As soon as More had calmed them, however, the inhabitants of St Martin started to throw stones, bricks, bats and boiling water from their windows some of which fell on an official who screamed: "Down with them!"

+Rainilaiarivony (30 January 1828 – 17 July 1896) was the Prime Minister of Madagascar from 1864 to 1895, succeeding his older brother Rainivoninahitriniony, who had held the post for thirteen years. His career mirrored that of his father Rainiharo, a renowned military man who became Prime Minister during the reign of Queen Ranavalona I.

+Etruscan art was the form of figurative art produced by the Etruscan civilization in central Italy between the 9th and 2nd centuries BC.

+In Chinese philosophy, the phrase three teachings (ChinesepinyinSan Jiao) refers to ConfucianismTaoism, and Buddhism when considered as a harmonious aggregate.[1] Some of the earliest literary references to the "Three Teachings" idea dates back to the 6th century by prominent Chinese scholars of the time.[1] The term may also refer to a non-religious philosophy built on that aggregation.

+Die Bajadere is an operetta in 3 acts composed by Hungarian composer Emmerich Kalman. The libretto was written by J. Brammer and A. Grunwald. The work premiered in Vienna on 23 December 1921. With the English-language title of The Yankee Princess, the work received its first New York City performances in October 1922.

+The Pink Finks was an Australian pop/R&B band of the mid-1960s. Based in Melbourne, Victoria, the group is most notable for being the first in the series of bands that featured Ross Wilson and Ross Hannaford, which culminated in the hugely successful Daddy Cool.

+Entick v Carrington [1765] EWHC KB J98 is a leading case in English law establishing the civil liberties of individuals and limiting the scope of executive power. The case has also been influential in other common law jurisdictions and was an important motivation for the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. It is famous for the dictum of Camden LJ: "If it is law, it will be found in our books. If it not to be found there, it is not law."

+Joseph Cosey (February 18, 1887 – ?) is the favorite alias of notorious forger Martin Coneely. He was very skilled at mimicking the handwriting of historical American figures.

+A short snorter is a banknote inscribed by people traveling together on an aircraft. The tradition was started by Alaskan Bush flyers in the 1920s and spread through the military and commercial aviation.[1][2] During World War II short snorters were signed by flight crews and conveyed good luck to soldiers crossing the Atlantic.[3] Friends would take the local currency and sign each other's bills creating a "keepsake of your buddy's signatures".

+HMS Eagle was an early aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy. Ordered by Chile during the South American dreadnought race as the Almirante Latorre-class battleship Almirante Cochrane, she was laid down before World War I. In early 1918 she was purchased by Britain for conversion to an aircraft carrier; this work was finished in 1924.

+The Munsters is an American television sitcom depicting the home life of a family of benign monsters. It stars Fred Gwynne as Herman Munster and Yvonne De Carlo as his wife, Lily Munster. The series was a satire of both traditional monster movies and the wholesome family fare of the era, and was produced by the creators of Leave It to Beaver.[2][3] It ran concurrently with The Addams Family.

+John "Grizzly" Adams (also known asJames Capen Adams, Grizzly Adams) (1812–1860) was a famous California mountain man and trainer of grizzly bears and other wild animals that he captured for menagerieszoological gardens and circuses. When Theodore H. Hittell[1] met John Adams in late 1856 at John's Mountaineer Museum in San Francisco, California, John first represented himself as William Adams,[2] then a short time later told Hittell (also incorrectly) that his name was James Capen Adams; he maintained this alias into 1860. He also told Hittell that he was born on October 20, 1807, in Maine

+CHiPs is an American television drama series produced by MGM Studios (now owned by Turner Entertainment) that originally aired on NBC from September 15, 1977, to July 17, 1983. CHiPs followed the lives of two motorcycle police officers of the California Highway Patrol. The series ran for 139 episodes over six seasons.

+George Barris (born November 20, 1925)[1] is a designer of custom cars.

+James Byron Dean (February 8, 1931 – September 30, 1955) was an American actor.[1] He is a cultural icon of teenage disillusionment, as expressed in the title of his most celebrated film, Rebel Without a Cause (1955), in which he starred as troubled Los Angeles teenager Jim Stark. The other two roles that defined his stardom were as loner Cal Trask in East of Eden (1955), and as the surly ranch hand, Jett Rink, in Giant (1956). Dean's enduring fame and popularity rests on his performances in only these three films, all leading roles. His premature death in a car crash cemented his legendary status.

+Majlis al Jinn also Majlis al-Jinn (meeting/gathering place of the Jinn), local name: Khoshilat Maqandeli is the ninth largest[1] cave chamber in the world,[2] as measured by the surface area of the floor. It ranks higher when measured by volume. The cave is located in a remote area of the Selma Plateau at 1,380 metres above sea level in the Sultanate of Oman, 100 km south-east from Muscat.

+An incubus (nominal form constructed from the Latin verb, incubo, incubare, or "to lie upon") is a demon in male form who, according to a number of mythological and legendary traditions, lies upon sleepers, especially women, in order to have sexual intercourse with them. Its female counterpart is the succubus. An incubus may pursue sexual relations with a woman in order to father a child, as in the legend of Merlin.[1] Religious tradition holds that repeated intercourse with an incubus or succubus may result in the deterioration of health, or even death.

+Enoch (HebrewחֲנוֹךְModern H̱anokh Tiberian ḤănōḵArabic: إدريس‎ ʼIdrīs) is a character that appears in the Book of Genesis and a figure in the Generations of Adam. Enoch is described as the greatx4grandson of Adam (through Seth) (Genesis 5:3-18), the son of Jared, the father of Methuselah, and the great-grandfather of Noah

+Ezekiel (pron.: /ɨˈzki.əl/HebrewיְחֶזְקֵאלY'ḥez'qel, Hebrew pronunciation: [jəħezˈqel]), Arabic:حزقيال Hazqiyal, 'God will strengthen' (from חזקḥazaq, [ħaˈzaq], literally 'to fasten upon,' figuratively 'strong,' andאלel, [ʔel], literally 'God', and so figuratively 'The Almighty') is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.

+Dr. Josef Allen Hynek (May 1, 1910 – April 27, 1986) was a United States astronomerprofessor, and ufologist.[1] He is perhaps best remembered for his UFO research. Hynek acted as scientific adviser to UFO studies undertaken by the U.S. Air Force under three consecutive names:

  1. Project Sign (1947–1949),
  2. Project Grudge (1949–1952), and
  3. Project Blue Book (1952 to 1969).

For decades afterwards, he conducted his own independent UFO research, developing the Close Encounter classification system, and is widely considered the father of the concept of scientific analysis of both reports and, especially, trace evidence purportedly left by UFOs.

+Project Sign was an official U.S. government study of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) undertaken by the United States Air Force and active for most of 1948.

Project Sign's final report, published in early 1949, stated that while some UFOs appeared to represent actual aircraft there were not enough data to determine their origin.[1] However, prior to this final report, Sign officially argued that UFOs were likely of extraterrestrial origin, and most of the project's personnel came to favor the extraterrestrial hypothesis before this opinion was rejected and Sign was dissolved and replaced with Project Grudge.

+Project Grudge was a short-lived project by the U.S. Air Force to investigate unidentified flying objects (UFOs). Grudge succeeded Project Sign in February, 1949, and was then followed by Project Blue Book. The project formally ended in December 1949, but actually continued on in a minimal capacity until late 1951.

+Travis Walton (born February 10, 1953[1]) is an American logger who claims to have been abducted by a UFO on November 5, 1975, while working with a logging crew in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest[2] in Arizona. Walton could not be found, but reappeared after a five-day search.

+Quantum foam (also referred to as space time foam) is a concept in quantum mechanics devised by John Wheeler in 1955. The foam is supposed to be conceptualized as the foundation of the fabric of the universe.[1]

Additionally, quantum foam can be used as a qualitative description of subatomic space time turbulence at extremely small distances (on the order of the Planck length). At such small scales of time and space, the Heisenberg uncertainty principleallows energy to briefly decay into particles and antiparticles and then annihilate without violating physical conservation laws. As the scale of time and space being discussed shrinks, the energy of the virtual particles increases. According toEinstein's theory of general relativity, energy curves space time. This suggests that—at sufficiently small scales—the energy of these fluctuations would be large enough to cause significant departures from the smooth space time seen at larger scales, giving space time a "foamy" character.

+A paradox is an argument that produces an inconsistency, typically within logic or common sense.[1] Most logical paradoxes are known to be invalid arguments but are still valuable in promoting critical thinking.[2] However, some have revealed errors in definitions assumed to be rigorous, and have caused axioms of mathematics and logic to be re-examined (e.g., Russell's paradox).[3] Still others, such as Curry's paradox, are not yet resolved. In common usage, the word "paradox" often refers toirony or contradiction. Examples outside logic include the Grandfather paradox from physics, and the Ship of Theseus from philosophy. Paradoxes can also take the form of images or other media. For example, M.C. Escher featured perspective-based paradoxes in many of his drawings

+In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves.

+Annihilation is defined as "total destruction" or "complete obliteration" of an object;[1] having its root in the Latin nihil (nothing). A literal translation is "to make into nothing".

+In the general sense, a cosmos is an orderly or harmonious system. The word derives from the Greek term κόσμος (kosmos), literally meaning "order" or "ornament" and metaphorically "world",[1] and is antithetical to the concept of chaos. Today, the word is generally used as a synonym of the Latin loanword "Universe" (considered in its orderly aspect). The word cosmeticsoriginates from the same root. In many Slavic languages such as RussianBulgarian, and Serbian, the word Космос cosmos means also the "outer space". In Mandarin Chinese, cosmos and universe are both translated as 宇宙 yǔzhòu, which literally translated means space-time (宇  = space + 宙 zhòu = time).

+The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift), named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who proposed it in 1842 in Prague, is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for anobserver moving relative to its source. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren or horn approaches, passes, and recedes from an observer. The received frequency is higher (compared to the emitted frequency) during the approach, it is identical at the instant of passing by, and it is lower during the recession.

+An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum (plural incunables or incunabula, respectively) is a book, pamphlet, or broadside (such as the Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474) that wasprinted—not handwritten—before the year 1501 in Europe. "Incunable" is the anglicised singular form of "incunabula", Latin for "swaddling clothes" or "cradle"[1] which can refer to "the earliest stages or first traces in the development of anything."[2] A former term for "incunable" is "fifteener," referring to the fifteenth century.

+Hank Williams (/hæŋk wɪljəmz /; September 17, 1923 – January 1, 1953), born Hiram King Williams, was an American singer-songwriter and musician regarded as one of the most important country music artists of all time. Williams recorded 35 singles (five released posthumously) that would place in the Top 10 of the Billboard Country & Western Best Sellers chart, including 11 that ranked number one.

+The Diamond Sūtra is a Mahāyāna sūtra from the Prajñāpāramitā, or "Perfection of Wisdom" genre, and emphasizes the practice of non-abiding and non-attachment. The full Sanskrit title of this text is theVajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra.

A copy of the Chinese version of Diamond Sūtra, found among the Dunhuang manuscripts in the early 20th century by Aurel Stein, was dated back to May 11, 868.[1] It is, in the words of the British Library, "the earliest complete survival of a dated printed book."

+The Smith Gun was an ad hoc anti-tank artillery piece used by the British Army and Home Guard during the Second World War. With a German invasion of Great Britain seeming likely after the defeat in the Battle of France, most available weaponry was diverted to the regular British Army, leaving the Home Guard short on supplies, particularly anti-tank weaponry. The Smith Gun was designed by a retired Army Major named William H. Smith as a makeshift anti tank weapon, and was put into production in 1941 following a demonstration to the Prime MinisterWinston Churchill.

+Chewbacca's creation as a "gentle, hairy, non-English-speaking co-pilot" was inspired by George Lucas seeing his own dog sitting up on the passenger seat of his car.[1] The dog, named Indiana, also inspired the name of the lead character in another one of Lucas' film franchises - Indiana Jones.[2] It is said that Chewbacca's name is derived from собака (sobaka), the Russian word for dog.         


+Cult of the Dead Cow, also known as cDc or cDc Communications, is a computer hacker and DIY media organization founded in 1984 in Lubbock, Texas. The group maintains a weblog on its site, also titled "Cult of the Dead Cow". New media are released first through the blog, which also features thoughts and opinions of the group's members.

+Thomas Crapper (baptised 28 September 1836; died 27 January 1910) was a plumber who founded Thomas Crapper & Co in London. Contrary to widespread misconceptions, Crapper did not invent theflush toilet. He did, however, do much to increase the popularity of the toilet, and developed some important related inventions, such as the ballcock. He was noted for the quality of his products and received several royal warrants.

                                                Computer Section

+Gary McKinnon (born 10 February 1966) is a Scottish[1] systems administrator and hacker who was accused in 2002 of perpetrating the "biggest military computer hack of all time,"[2] although McKinnon himself – who has a diagnosis of Asperger's Syndrome – states that he was merely looking for evidence of free energy suppression and a cover-up of UFO activity and other technologies potentially useful to the public. On 16 October 2012, after a series of legal proceedings in Britain, Home Secretary Theresa May withdrew his extradition order to the United States.

+SQL injection is a technique often used to attack data driven applications.[1] This is done by including portions of SQL statements in an entry field in an attempt to get the website to pass a newly formed rogue SQL command to the database (e.g., dump the database contents to the attacker). SQL injection is a code injection technique that exploits a security vulnerability in an application's software. The vulnerability happens when user input is either incorrectly filtered for string literalescape characters embedded in SQL statements or user input is not strongly typed and unexpectedly executed. SQL injection is mostly known as an attack vector for websites but can be used to attack any type of SQL database.

In operational environments, it has been noted that applications experience an average of 71 attempts an hour.

+The Morris worm or Internet worm of November 2, 1988 was one of the first computer worms distributed via the Internet. It is considered the first worm and was certainly the first to gain significant mainstream media attention. It also resulted in the first conviction in the US under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.[1] It was written by a student at Cornell UniversityRobert Tappan Morris, and launched on November 2, 1988 from MIT.

+In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. Although the means to carry out, motives for, and targets of a DoS attack may vary, it generally consists of the efforts of one or more people to temporarily or indefinitely interrupt or suspend services of ahost connected to the Internet.

+DNS hijacking or DNS redirection is the practice of subverting the resolution of Domain Name System (DNS) queries. This can be achieved by malware that overrides a computer's TCP/IP configuration to point at a rogue DNS server under the control of an attacker, or through modifying the behaviour of a trusted DNS server so that it does not comply with internet standards.

+The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and similar networks, and generally the most popular protocol stack for wide area networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because of its most important protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. It is occasionally known as the DoD model due to the foundational influence of the ARPANET in the 1970s (operated by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense).

+The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the world's first operational packet switching network, the first network to implement TCP/IP, and the progenitor of what was to become the global Internet. The network was initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA, later DARPA) within the U.S. Department of Defense for use by its projects at universities and research laboratories in the US. The packet switching of the ARPANET, together with TCP/IP, would form the backbone of how the Internet works. The packet switching was based on concepts and designs by engineer Paul BaranBritish scientist Donald Davies[1][2] and Lawrence Roberts of the Lincoln Laboratory.[3] The TCP/IP set of communication protocols were developed for ARPANET by computer scientists Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf.

+Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in Web applications. XSS enables attackers to inject client-side script into Web pages viewed by other users. A cross-site scripting vulnerability may be used by attackers to bypass access controls such as the same origin policy. Cross-site scripting carried out on websites accounted for roughly 84% of all security vulnerabilities documented by Symantec as of 2007.[1] Their effect may range from a petty nuisance to a significant security risk, depending on the sensitivity of the data handled by the vulnerable site and the nature of any security mitigation implemented by the site's owner.

+The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is an open-source application security project. The OWASP community includes corporations, educational organizations, and individuals from around the world. This community works to create freely-available articles, methodologies, documentation, tools, and technologies. The OWASP Foundation is a 501(c)(3) charitable organization that supports and manages OWASP projects and infrastructure. It is also a registered non profit in Europe since June 2011.

+Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt changes or discontinuities. In contrast, categorical theories or models explain variation using qualitatively different states.

+Smooth infinitesimal analysis is a modern reformulation of the calculus in terms of infinitesimals. Based on the ideas of F. W. Lawvere and employing the methods of category theory, it views all functions as being continuous and incapable of being expressed in terms of discrete entities. As a theory, it is a subset of synthetic differential geometry.

+Infinitesimals have been used to express the idea of objects so small that there is no way to see them or to measure them. Students easily relate to the intuitive notion of an infinitesimal difference 1-"0.999...", where "0.999..." needs to be interpreted differently from its standard meaning as a real number.

+Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts relating to the uniformity in a substance. A material that is homogeneous is uniform in composition or character; one that is heterogeneous is distinctly nonuniform in one of these qualities

+Rhenium diboride (ReB2) is a synthetic superhard material. It was first synthesized in 1962[2] and re-emerged recently due to hopes of achieving high hardness comparable to that of diamond.[3] However, the reported ultrahigh hardness has not been confirmed.

+Rhenium trichloride (ReCl3) is a compound of rhenium and chlorine. It was first discovered in 1932 by Geilnann, Wriuce, and Biltz.

+Tungsten(VI) fluoride, also known as tungsten hexafluoride, is the inorganic compound of tungsten and fluorine with the formula WF6. This corrosive, colorless compound is a gas under standard conditions, with a density of about 13 g/L (roughly 11 times heavier than air.[1][2][3]), WF6 is one of the heaviest known gases under standard conditions.[4] WF6 gas is most commonly used in the production of semiconductor circuits and circuit boards through the process of chemical vapor deposition – upon decomposition, molecules of WF6 leave a residue of metallic tungsten. This layer serves as low-resistive metallic "interconnect".

+The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressureinternal pressurestressYoung's modulus and tensile strength,[1] named after the French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, and philosopher Blaise Pascal. It is a measure of force per unit area, defined as one newton per square meter.

+The International System of Units (abbreviated SI from FrenchLe Système international d'unités) is the modern form of the metric system. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built around seven base units, 22 named and an indeterminate number of unnamed coherent derived units, and a set of prefixes that act as decimal-based multipliers. The standards, published in 1960, are based on the metre-kilogram-second system, rather than the centimetre-gram-second system, which, in turn, had several variants

+The centimetre–gram–second system (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system of physical units based on centimetre as the unit of lengthgram as a unit of mass, and second as a unit of time. All CGS mechanical units are unambiguously derived from these three base units, but there are several different ways of extending the CGS system to cover electromagnetism.

+The International System of Units (SI) specifies a set of seven base units from which all other units of measurement are formed, by products of the powers of base units. These other units are called SI derived units; for example, the SI derived unit of area is square metre (m2), and of density is kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m3). The number of derived units is unlimited.

+Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivityspecific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) quantifiYoung's modulus, also known as the tensile modulus or elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of an elastic material and is a quantity used to characterize materials. It is defined as the ratio of the stress along an axis over the strain along that axis in the range of stress in which Hooke's law holdses how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

+Young's modulus, also known as the tensile modulus or elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of an elastic material and is a quantity used to characterize materials. It is defined as the ratio of the stress along an axis over the strain along that axis in the range of stress in which Hooke's law holds.

+Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force F needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance X is proportional to that distance. That is,

F = k X,

+Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ίσος, equal) and tropos (τρόπος, way). Precise definitions depend on the subject area. Exceptions, or inequalities, are frequently indicated by the prefix an, hence anisotropy.Anisotropy is also used to describe situations where properties vary systematically, dependent on direction.

+Isotropic radiation has the same intensity regardless of the direction of measurement, and an isotropic field exerts the same action regardless of how the test particle is oriented. It radiates uniformly in all directions from a point source sometimes called an isotropic radiator. The radiation may be electromagnetic, audio or composed of other elementary particles.

+Poisson's ratio (\nu), named after Siméon Poisson, is the negative ratio of transverse to axial strain. In fact, when a sample object is stretched (or squeezed), to an extension (or contraction) in the direction of the applied load, it corresponds a contraction (or extension) in a direction perpendicular to the applied load. The ratio between these two quantities is the Poisson's ratio.

+An orthotropic material has two or three mutually orthogonal twofold axes of rotational symmetry so that its mechanical properties are, in general, different along each axis. 

+A transversely isotropic material is one with physical properties which are symmetric about an axis that is normal to a plane of isotropy. This transverse plane has infinite planes of symmetry and thus, within this plane, the material properties are the same in all directions. Hence, such materials are also known as "polar anisotropic" materials.

+In linear algebra, an orthogonal transformation is a linear transformation T : V → V on a real inner product space V, that preserves the inner product. That is, for each pair uv of elements of V, we have

 \langle u,v \rangle = \langle Tu,Tv \rangle \,

+In statics, a structure is statically indeterminate (or hyperstatic)[1] when the static equilibrium equations are insufficient for determining the internal forces and reactions on that structure.

Based on Newton's laws of motion, the equilibrium equations available for a two-dimensional body are

  •  \sum \vec F = 0 : the vectorial sum of the forces acting on the body equals zero. This translates to

Σ H = 0: the sum of the horizontal components of the forces equals zero;

Σ V = 0: the sum of the vertical components of forces equals zero;

  •  \sum \vec M = 0 : the sum of the moments (about an arbitrary point) of all forces equals zero.


+Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS) or ultimate strength,[1][2] is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking. Tensile strength is the opposite ofcompressive strength and the values can be quite different.

+Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere. Studies in the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw breakthroughs occur after observing networks developed across several countries. 

+Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cyclewater resources and environmental watershed sustainability.

+In Physicsgeographyastronomymeteorologystatistics, and other sciences, the term scale or spatial scale is used for describing or classifying with large approximation the extent or size of a length, distance, or area studied or described. For instance, in physics an object or phenomenon can be called microscopic if too small to be visible.

+Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted on a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet). In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the mass of air above the measurement point. Low-pressure areas have less atmospheric mass above their location, whereas high-pressure areas have more atmospheric mass above their location. 

+The bar is a non-SI unit of pressure, defined by the IUPAC as exactly equal to 100,000 Pa.[1] It is about equal to the atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level, and since 1982 the IUPAC has recommended that the standard for atmospheric pressure should be harmonized to 100,000 Pa = 1 bar ≈ 750.0616827 Torr.

+The centimetre–gram–second system (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system of physical units based on centimetre as the unit of lengthgram as a unit of mass, and second as a unit of time. All CGS mechanical units are unambiguously derived from these three base units, but there are several different ways of extending the CGS system to cover electromagnetism.

+The metre–tonne–second or mts system of units is a system of physical units. It was invented in France, hence the unit names sthène and pièze, and became its legal system between 1919 and 1961 ("décret" May 5th 1961, "Journal Officiel"). It was adopted by the Soviet Union in 1933, and abolished there in 1955.

+The sthène (symbol sn), sometimes spelled (or misspelled) sthéne[1] or sthene,[2] is an obsolete unit of force in the metre-tonne-second system of units (mts) introduced in France in 1919.[3] The system was soon abandoned in favor of the mkssystem and has now been superseded by the Système International (SI).[2] It was also used to measure thrust. It is approximately 224 pounds force.

+Hemp (from Old English hænep) is a commonly used term for varieties of the Cannabis plant and its products, which include fiber, oil, and seed. In many countries regulatory limits for concentrations of psychoactive drug compounds (THC) in hemp encourages the use of strains of the plant which are bred for low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content or otherwise have the THC removed.[1] Hemp is refined into products like hemp seed foods, hemp oil, wax, resin, rope, cloth, pulp, and fuel.

+Elastography is a non-invasive method in which stiffness or strain images of soft tissue are used to detect or classify tumors. A tumor or a suspicious cancerous growth is normally 5-28 times stiffer than the background of normal soft tissue. When a mechanical compression or vibration is applied, the tumor deforms less than the surrounding tissue. i.e. the strain in the tumor is less than the surrounding tissue. Hence a strain image may, under particular simplifying assumptions, be interpreted as representative of the underlying Young's modulus distribution.

+Liver biopsy is the biopsy (removal of a small sample of tissue) from the liver. It is a medical test that is done to aid diagnosis of liver disease, to assess the severity of known liver disease, and to monitor the progress of treatment.

+Cirrhosis (pron.: /sɪˈrsɪs/) is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosisscar tissue and regenerative nodules (lumps that occur as a result of a process in which damaged tissue is regenerated),[1][2][3] leading to loss of liver function.

+Hepatic encephalopathy (also known as portosystemic encephalopathy) is the occurrence of confusionaltered level of consciousness, and coma as a result of liver failure. In the advanced stages it is called hepatic coma or coma hepaticum. It may ultimately lead to death.

+The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial[1]) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced. The system came into official use across the British Empire. By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had officially adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement, although as of 2013 the United Kingdom had only partially adopted it.

+An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away. While finishing a material often means polishing it to gain a smooth, reflective surface it can also involve roughening as in satin, matte or beaded finishes.

+Honing is an abrasive machining process that produces a precision surface on a metal workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface, but may also improve the surface texture.

+Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of irontitanium and chromium.[1] It is a rock-forming mineral. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials, but can have different colors when impurities are present. Transparent specimens are used as gems, called ruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. 

+Linoleum (informally abbreviated to lino) is a floor covering made from renewable materials such as solidified linseed oil (linoxyn), pine rosin, ground cork dust, wood flour, and mineral fillers such ascalcium carbonate, most commonly on a burlap or canvas backing; pigments are often added to the materials.

+Swarf, also known as turningschips, or filings, are shavings and chippings of metal — the debris or waste resulting from metalworking operations including milling and grinding. It can usually be recycled, and this is the preferred method of disposal due to the environmental concerns regarding potential contamination with cutting fluid or tramp oil

+A centrifuge is a piece of equipment, generally driven by an electric motor (some older models were spun by hand), that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, applying a force perpendicular to the axis. A centrifuge is also used to separate the components of blood in blood banks.

+Molybdenum is a Group 6 chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin Molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores.[4] Molybdenum minerals have been known into prehistory, but the element was discovered (in the sense of differentiating it as a new entity from the mineral salts of other metals) in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. The metal was first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm.

+Tungsten hexachloride is the chemical compound of tungsten and chlorine with the formula WCl6. This dark violet blue species exists as a volatile solid under standard conditions. It is an important starting reagent in the preparation of tungsten compounds.[1] WCl6 is a rare example of a charge-neutral hexachloride, another example being ReCl6. Better known than WCl6 is the still more volatile WF6.

+"NFPA 704: Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" is a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association. First "tentatively adopted as a guide" in 1960,[1] and revised several times since then, it defines the colloquial "fire diamond" used by emergency personnel to quickly and easily identify the risks posed by hazardous materials. This helps determine what, if any, special equipment should be used, procedures followed, or precautions taken during the initial stages of an emergency response.

+A fractal is a mathematical set that has a fractal dimension that usually exceeds its topological dimension[1] and may fall between the integers.[2] Fractals are typically self-similar patterns, where self-similar means they are "the same from near as from far".[3] Fractals may be exactly the same at every scale, or, as illustrated in Figure 1, they may be nearly the same at different scales.

+Lebesgue covering dimension or topological dimension is one of several inequivalent notions of assigning a topological invariant dimension to a given topological space.

+In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space is a set of points, along with a set of neighbourhoods for each point, that satisfy a set of axioms relating points and neighbourhoods. The definition of a topological space relies only upon set theory and is the most general notion of a mathematical "space" that allows for the definition of concepts such as continuityconnectedness, and convergence

+Cymothoa exigua, or the tongue-eating louse, is a parasitic crustacean of the family Cymothoidae. This parasite enters fish through the gills, and then attaches itself at the base of the fish's tongue. The female attaches to the tongue and the male attaches on the gill arches beneath and behind the female. Females are 8–29 millimetres (0.3–1.1 in) long and 4–14 mm (0.16–0.55 in) in maximum width. Males are approximately 7.5–15 mm (0.3–0.6 in) long and 3–7 mm (0.12–0.28 in) wide.[1] The parasite destroys the fish's tongue, and then attaches itself to the stub of what was once its tongue and becomes the fish's new tongue.

+Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabslobsterscrayfishshrimpkrill and barnacles. The 67,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at 0.1 mm (0.004 in), to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span of up to 12.5 ft (3.8 m) and a mass of 44 lb (20 kg). Like other arthropods, crustaceans have an exoskeleton, which they moult to grow. They are distinguished from other groups of arthropods, such as insectsmyriapods and chelicerates, by the possession of biramous (two-parted) limbs, and by the nauplius form of the larvae.

+Ecdysis (from Greek: ἐκδύω, ekduo, to take off, strip off[1]) is the moulting of the cuticula in many invertebrates. This process of moulting is the defining feature of the clade Ecdysozoa,[2] comprising thearthropodsnematodes velvet wormshorsehair wormstardigrades, and Cephalorhyncha.[3] Since the cuticula of these animals often forms an inelastic exoskeleton, it is shed during growth and a new, larger covering is formed.[2] The remnants of the old, empty exoskeleton are called exuviae.

+Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. Causes of atrophy include mutations (which can destroy the gene to build up the organ), poor nourishment, poor circulation, loss ofhormonal support, loss of nerve supply to the target organ, excessive amount of apoptosis of cells, and disuse or lack of exercise or disease intrinsic to the tissue itself. Hormonal and nerve inputs that maintain an organ or body part are referred to as trophic [noun] in medical practice ('trophic" is an adjective that can be paired with various nouns). Trophic describes the trophic condition of tissue. A diminished muscular trophic is designated as atrophy.

+Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20, 1967 – April 5, 1994)[2][3] was an American musician and artist, best known as the lead singerguitarist and primary songwriter of the grunge band Nirvana. Cobain formed Nirvana with Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen, Washington in 1985 and established it as part of the Seattle music scene, having its debut album Bleach released on the independent record label Sub Pop in 1989.

+Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works. Three novels, four collections of short stories, and three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of these are considered classics of American literature.

+Haemochromatosis (or hemochromatosistype 1[1] (also HFE hereditary haemochromatosis[2] or HFE-related hereditary haemochromatosis[3]) is a hereditary disease characterized by excessive intestinal absorption of dietary iron resulting in a pathological increase in total body iron stores.[4] Humans, like most animals, have no means to excrete excess iron.[5] Excess iron accumulates in tissues and organs disrupting their normal function. The most susceptible organs include the liveradrenal glandsheartskingonadsjoints, and the pancreas; patients can present with cirrhosispolyarthropathy, adrenal insufficiency, heart failure or diabetes.[6] The hereditary form of the disease is most common among those of Northern European ancestry, in particular those of Celtic descent.

+In medicineiron overload indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause. The most important causes are hereditary haemochromatosis (HHC), a genetic disorder, and transfusional iron overload, which can result from repeated blood transfusion.

+François-Marie Arouet (French: [fʁɑ̃.swa ma.ʁi aʁ.wɛ]; 21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire (pronounced: [vɔl.tɛːʁ]), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian andphilosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religionfreedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works.

+Clairvius Narcisse (born c. 1922) was a Haitian man said to have been turned into a living zombie by a combination of drugs. After investigating reports of "zombies" (including Narcisse and a handful of others), researchers believed that Narcisse received a dose of chemical mixture containing tetrodotoxin (pufferfish venom) and bufotoxin (toad venom) to induce a coma which mimicked the appearance of death. He was then allowed to return to his home where he collapsed, "died", and was buried. The Canadian ethnobotanist Wade Davis, who did the research on tetrodotoxin [1] explains how this would have been done. The bokor (sorcerer) would have given Narcisse a powder containing the tetrodotoxin through abraded skin. Narcisse fell into a comatose state, closely resembling death, which resulted in his live burial.[2] His body was then recovered and he was given doses of Datura stramonium to create a compliant zombie-like state and set to work on a plantation. After two years, the plantation owner died and Narcisse simply walked away to freedom.

+Bokors in the religion of vodou are sorcerers or houngan (priests) or mambo (priestesses) for hire who are said to 'serve the loa with both hands', meaning that they practice both dark magic and light magic. Their black magic includes the creation ofzombies[1] and the creation of 'ouangas', talismans that house spirits.

+Bufotoxins are a family of toxic substances found in the parotoid glands, skin and venom of many toads (genus Bufo); other amphibians; and some plants and mushrooms.[1] The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMTbufaginsbufotalinbufoteninebufothionineepinephrinenorepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine

+Houngan is the term for a male priest in Haitian Vodou (a female priest is known as a mambo).[1] The term is derived from the Fon word "hùn gan". There are two ranks of hounganhoungan asogwe (high priest) and houngan sur pwen (junior priest).[2] A houngan asogwe is the highest member of clergy in voodoo and the only one with authority to ordain other priests.

+Mambo is the term for a female (as opposed to the Houngan, or male) High Priest in the Vodou religion in Haiti. They are the highest form of clergy in the religion, whose responsibility it is to preserve the rituals and songs and maintain the relationship between the spirits and the community as a whole (though some of this is the responsibility of the whole community as well). They are entrusted with leading the service of all of the spirits of their lineage.

+Ethnobotany (from "ethnology" — study of culture[1] and "botany" — study of plants) is the scientific study of the relationships that exist between people and plants.

+Erotic asphyxiation or breath control play is the intentional restriction of oxygen to the brain for sexual arousal. The sexual practice is variously called asphyxiophiliaautoerotic asphyxiahypoxyphilia. Colloquially, a person engaging in the activity is sometimes called a gasper. The erotic interest in asphyxiation is classified as a paraphilia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association.

+Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions. Normally oxygen exerts a partial pressure of 20.9%[1] in the air. In water however; oxygen levels are much lower, approximately 1%, and fluctuate locally depending on the presence of photosynthetic organisms and relative distance to the surface (there is more oxygen in the air, which will diffuse across the partial pressure gradient).

+Hypoxia, or hypoxiation, is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalized hypoxia) or a region of the body (tissue hypoxia, or less commonly regional hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. Variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiology, for example, during strenuous physical exercise. A mismatch between oxygen supply and its demand at the cellular level may result in a hypoxic condition. Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia.

+A deep water blackout is a loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoxia on ascending from a deep freedive or breath-hold dive, typically of ten metres or more when the swimmer does not necessarily experience an urgent need to breathe and has no other obvious medical condition that might have caused it.[1][2][3] Victims typically black out close to the surface, usually within the top three metres, sometimes even as they break surface and have often been seen to approach the surface without apparent distress only to sink away.

+Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts relating to the uniformity in a substance. A material that is homogeneous is uniform in composition or character; one that is heterogeneous is distinctly nonuniform in one of these qualities. The concepts are the same to every level of complexity, from atoms to populations of animals or people, and galaxies[clarification needed]. Hence, an element may be homogeneous on a larger scale, compared to being heterogeneous on a smaller scale. This is known as an effective medium approach, or effective medium approximations.

+The word cockalorum means a self-important little man.

+The Commission internationale permanente pour l'épreuve des armes à feu portatives (Permanent International Commission for Firearms Testing - commonly abbreviated as C.I.P. or CIP) is an international organisation whose members are 14 states, mainly European.

+Kerosene is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid. The name is derived from Greek: κηρός (keros) meaning wax. The word "Kerosene" was registered as a trademark by Abraham Gesner in 1854, and for several years, only the North American Gas Light Company and the Downer Company (to which Gesner had granted the right) were allowed to call their lamp oil "Kerosene" in the United States.[1] It eventually became a genericized trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage.[2] The term "kerosene" is usual in much of Canada, the United States, Australia and New Zealand.[3] It can be referred to colloquially as "kero".

+Paraffin wax refers to a white or colourless soft solid that is used as a lubricant and for other applications. It is derived from petroleum and consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms. It is solid at room temperature and begins to melt above approximately 37 °C (99 °F).[1] In chemistry, paraffin is used synonymously with "alkane", indicating hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2. The name is derived from Latin parum ("barely") + affinis, meaning "lacking affinity" or "lacking reactivity" indicating paraffin's unreactive nature.

+Alkanes , or paraffins (a still-used historical name for alkanes), are saturated hydrocarbons. They consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms, all bonds are single bonds, and the carbon atoms are not joined in cyclic structures but instead form a simple chain. They have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2. Alkanes belong to a homologous series of organic compounds in which the members differ by amolecular mass of 14 (one carbon atom of mass 12, and two hydrogen atoms of collective mass 2). There are two main commercial sources: crude oil and natural gas.

+Joseph Benson Foraker (July 5, 1846 – May 10, 1917) was the 37th Governor of Ohio from 1886 to 1890 and a Republican United States Senator from 1897 until 1909.

+Combustibility is a measure of how easily a substance will set on fire, through fire or combustion. This is an important property to consider when a substance is used for construction or is being stored. It is also important in processes that produce combustible substances as a by-product. Special precautions are usually required for substances that are easily combustible. These measures may include installation of fire sprinklers or storage remote from possible sources of ignition.

+Abraham Pineo Gesner (May 2, 1797 - April 29, 1864) was a Canadian physician and geologist who invented kerosene. Although Ignacy Łukasiewicz developed the modern kerosene lamp, starting the world's oil industry, Gesner is considered a primary founder. Gesner was born in Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. He died in HalifaxNova Scotia.

+Jasper Newton "JackDaniel (January 5, 1849 – October 10, 1911) was an American distiller and the founder of Jack Daniel's Tennessee whiskey distillery.

The Seagram Company Ltd. was a large corporation headquartered in Montreal, QuebecCanada that was the largest distiller of alcoholic beverages in the world. Toward the end of its independent existence it also controlled various entertainment and other business ventures. The Seagram assets have since been acquired by other companies, notably The Coca-Cola CompanyDiageo, and Pernod Ricard.

+Captain Morgan is a brand of rum produced by alcohol conglomerate Diageo. It is named after the 17th-century, Welsh privateer of the CaribbeanSir Henry Morgan who died on 26 August 1688. Since 2011, the label has used the slogan, "To Life, Love and Loot."

+A privateer is a private person or ship authorized by a government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping during wartime. Privateering was a way of mobilizing armed ships and sailors without having to spend treasury resources or commit naval officers. 

+Admiral Sir Henry Morgan (Harri Morgan in Welshca. 1635 – 25 August 1688) was an Admiral of the English Royal Navy, a privateer, and a pirate[3][4][5] who made a name for himself during activities in the Caribbean, primarily raiding Spanish settlements. He earned a reputation as one of the most notorious and successful privateers in history, and one of the most ruthless among those active along the Spanish Main.

+David Litman was born in New York in 1957. He lived in the UK from 1967-1975. He attended Sussex House School from 1968-1971 and City of London School from 1971-1975. He is a graduate of Cornell University (1979) and Cornell Law School(1982).

+American exceptionalism is the proposition that the United States is different from other countries in that it has a specific world mission to spread liberty and democracy.[2] It is not a notion that the United States is quantitatively better than other countries or that it has a superior culture, but rather that it is "qualitatively different".[3] In this view, America's exceptionalism stems from its emergence from a revolution, becoming what political scientist Seymour Martin Lipset called "'the first new nation,'...other than Iceland, to become independent",[4] and developing a uniquely American ideology, based on liberty, egalitarianismindividualismpopulism and laissez-faire.

+Egalitarianism (from French égal, meaning "equal")—or, rarely, equalitarianism[1][2]—is a trend of thought that favors equality for particular categories of, or for all, living entities. Egalitarian doctrines maintain that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status, according to The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.[3] The Cultural theory of risk holds egalitarianism as defined by (1) a negative attitude towards rules and principles, and (2) a positive attitude towards group decision-making, with fatalism termed as its opposite.

+The Konami Code (Japanese: コナミコマンド, Konami komando, "Konami command") is a cheat code that appears in many Konami video games,[1] although the code also appears in some non-Konami games.

+Wayne Clayson Booth (February 22, 1921 in American ForkUtah – October 10, 2005 in ChicagoIllinois) was an American literary critic. He was the George M. Pullman Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus in English Language & Literature and the College at the University of Chicago. His work followed largely from the Chicago school of literary criticism.

+An unreliable narrator is a narrator, whether in literature, film, or theatre, whose credibility has been seriously compromised.[1] The term was coined in 1961 by Wayne C. Booth in The Rhetoric of Fiction.[2] This narrative mode is one that can be developed by an author for a number of reasons, usually to deceive the reader or audience.[1] Most often unreliable narrators are first-person narrators, but sometimes third-person narrators can also be unreliable.

+A utopia (/juːˈtpiə/) is a community or society possessing highly desirable or perfect qualities. The word was coined in Greek by Sir Thomas More for his 1516 book Utopia, describing a fictional island society in the Atlantic Ocean. The term has been used to describe both intentional communities that attempt to create an ideal society, and fictional societies portrayed in literature. It has spawned other concepts, most prominently dystopia.

+A Crystal Age is a utopian novelDystopia written by W. H. Hudson, first published in 1887.[1] The book has been called a "significant S-F milestone"[2] and has been noted for its anticipation of the "modern ecological mysticism" that would evolve a century later.

+Pyrokinesis, derived from the Greek words πυρ (pûr, meaning "fire, lightning") and κίνησις (kínesis, meaning "motion"), was the name coined by horror novelist Stephen King for protagonistCharlie McGee's ability to create or to control fire strictly by thought in King's 1980 novel, Firestarter.[1] The word is intended to be parallel to telekinesis, though arguably the prefix "tele-" (meaning "from afar") rather than the suffix "-kinesis" would be the part to preserve in a proper Greek-based hybrid word. Critic S.T. Joshi describes the word as a "singularly unfortunate coinage."

+The Bathysphere (Greek words βάθuς (bathus), "deep" and σφαίρα (sphaira), "sphere") is a spherical deep-sea submersible which was unpowered and lowered into the ocean on a cable, and was used to conduct a series of dives off the coast of Bermuda from 1930 to 1934. The Bathysphere was designed in 1928 and 1929 by the American engineer Otis Barton, to be used by the naturalist William Beebe for studying undersea wildlife. Beebe and Barton conducted dives in the Bathysphere together, marking the first time that a marine biologist observed deep-sea animals in their native environment. Their dives set several consecutive world records for the deepest dive ever performed by a human. The record set by the deepest of these, to a depth of 3,028 feet on August 15, 1934, lasted until it was broken by Barton in 1949.

+A sleeper agent is a spy who is placed in a target country or organization, not to undertake an immediate mission, but rather to act as a potential asset if activated. Sleeper agents are popular plot devices in fiction, in particular espionage fiction andscience fiction.

+Whittaker Chambers, born Jay Vivian Chambers and also known as David Whittaker Chambers[1] (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961), was an American writer and editor. After being a Communist Party USA member and Soviet spy, he later renounced communism and became an outspoken opponent later testifying in the perjury and espionage trial of Alger Hiss. Both are described in his book published in 1952 entitled Witness.

+Atlas Shrugged is a novel by Ayn Rand, first published in 1957 in the United States. Rand's fourth and last novel, it was also her longest, and the one she considered to be her magnum opus in the realm of fiction writing.[4] Atlas Shrugged includes elements of romance,[1][2][3] mystery, and science fiction,[5] and it contains Rand's most extensive statement of Objectivism in any of her works of fiction.

+Magnum opus (plural: magna opera, also opus magnum / opera magna), from the Latin meaning "great work",[1] refers to the largest, and perhaps the best, greatest, most popular, or most renowned achievement of a writerartistcomposer orcraftsman.

+Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. Generally, objectivity means the state or quality of being true even outside of asubject's individual feelings, imaginings, or interpretations.

+Ayn Rand (pron.: /ˈn ˈrænd/;[1] born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum; February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American novelist, philosopher,[2] playwright, and screenwriter. She is known for her two best-selling novels, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, and for developing a philosophical system she called Objectivism. Born and educated in Russia, Rand moved to the United States in 1926. She worked as a screenwriter in Hollywood and had a play produced on Broadway in 1935–1936.

+The Objectivist Party is a political party in the United States that seeks to promote Ayn Rand's philosophy of Objectivism in the political realm.[1] The party was formed on February 2, 2008 by Dr. Thomas Stevens;[2] the date was chosen to coincide with Rand's birthday.

+A dystopia is a community or society, usually fictional, that is in some important way undesirable or frightening. It is the opposite of a utopia. Such societies appear in many works of fiction, particularly in stories set in a speculative future. Dystopias are often characterized by dehumanization,[1] totalitarian governments, environmental disaster,[2] or other characteristics associated with a cataclysmic decline in society.

+A protagonist (from the Greek πρωταγωνιστής protagonistes, "one who plays the first part, chief actor"[1]) is the main character (the central or primary personal figure) of a literary, theatrical, cinematic, or musical narrative, which ends up in conflict because of the antagonist. The audience is intended to most identify with the protagonist. In the theatre of Ancient Greece, three actors played all of the main dramatic roles in a tragedy; the leading role was played by the protagonist, while the other roles were played by deuteragonist and the tritagonist.

+The profit motive is the concept in economics that refers to individuals being provided to increase productivity to give up on something (e.g. capital, expertise, labour) for deployment to a productive purpose. If humans are rational and self-interested (seeHomo economicus), then they should only divert some of their personal resource toward production for others in society (i.e. invest) if there is some payback for their self-sacrifice and risk. If there was no profit motive then the rational actor would merely conserve their resource for personal use and no investment would occur. The concept of profit motive was first raised by Adam Smith to explain why rational actors should invest their personal resources and why they needed to be provided a rent for use of that capital.

+A golden age is a period in a field of endeavor when great tasks were accomplished. The term originated from early Greek and Roman poets, who used to refer to a time when mankind lived in a better time and was pure (see Golden Age).

+The R-7 (Russian: Р-7) was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.[1] The R-7 made 28 launches between 1957 and 1961, but was never deployed operationally. A derivative, the R-7A, was deployed from 1960 to 1968. To the West it was known by the NATO reporting name SS-6 Sapwood and within the Soviet Union by the GRAU index8K71. In modified form, it launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite, into orbit, and became the basis for the R7 family which includes SputnikLunaMolniyaVostok, and Voskhod space launchers, as well as later Soyuz/L/U/U2/FG/2 variants.

+R-phrases (short for Risk Phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EECNature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. The list was consolidated and republished in Directive 2001/59/EC, where translations into other EU languages may be found. These risk phrases are used internationally, not just in Europe, and there is an ongoing effort towards complete international harmonization.

+Taylor Ashley Horn[2] (born October 12, 1992, in Redlands, California) is an American singer-songwriter and occasional actress from Kentwood, Louisiana. She now goes by the stage name of Princess Bambi Monroe.

+The Yamaha YZF-R7 OW02 is a race homologation motorcycle of limited production run of only 500 units. It was designed to compete in the Superbike World Championship and Suzuka 8 Hours endurance races.

+The .950 JDJ is a large caliber rifle cartridge developed by J. D. Jones of SSK Industries. Loaded .950 JDJ cartridges are approximately the length of an empty .50 BMG casing (i.e., 4 in/10 cm), and are based on a 20×102mm case shortened and necked up to accept the .950 in (24.1 mm) bullet.[1] Projectiles are custom-made and most commonly weigh 3,600 grains (230 g) which is 8.2 ounces or over half a pound. The maximum psi is 8,349,768. (57,569.62 MPa)

+A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flaskDewar bottle or Thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings. Invented by Sir James Dewar in 1892, the vacuum flask consists of two flasks, placed one within the other and joined at the neck. The gap between the two flasks is partially evacuated of air, creating a near-vacuum which prevents heat transfer by conduction or convection.

+The Leidenfrost effect is a phenomenon in which a liquid, in near contact with a mass significantly hotter than the liquid's boiling point, produces an insulating vapor layer which keeps that liquid from boiling rapidly. This is most commonly seen when cooking; one sprinkles drops of water in a pan to gauge its temperature—if the pan's temperature is at or above the Leidenfrost point, the water skitters across the metal and takes longer to evaporate than it would in a pan that is above boiling temperature, but below the temperature of the Leidenfrost point.

+Liquid oxygen — abbreviated LOxLOX or Lox in the aerospacesubmarine and gas industries — is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen. Liquid oxygen has a pale blue color and is strongly paramagnetic and can be suspended between the poles of a powerful horseshoe magnet.[1] Liquid oxygen has a density of 1.141 g/cm3 (1.141 kg/L) and is cryogenic with a freezing point of 50.5 K (−368.77  °F; −222.65 °C) and a boiling point of 90.19 K (−297.33 °F, −182.96 °C) at 101.325 kPa (760 mmHg). Liquid oxygen has an expansion ratio of 1:861 under 1 standard atmosphere (100 kPa) and 20 °C (68 °F),[2][3] and because of this, it is used in some commercial and military aircraft as transportable source of breathing oxygen.

+Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are attracted by an externally applied magnetic field. In contrast with this behavior, diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields.[1] Paramagnetic materials include most chemical elements and some compounds;[2] they have a relative magnetic permeability greater or equal to unity (i.e., a positive magnetic susceptibility) and hence are attracted to magnetic fields. The magnetic moment induced by the applied field is linear in the field strength and rather weak. It typically requires a sensitive analytical balance to detect the effect and modern measurements on paramagnetic materials are often conducted with a SQUID magnetometer.

+An oxidising agentoxidantoxidizer or oxidiser can be defined as a substance that removes electrons from another reactant in a redox chemical reaction. The oxidising agent is "reduced" by taking electrons onto itself and the reactant is "oxidised" by having its electrons taken away. Oxygen is the prime example of an oxidising agent, but it is only one among many.

+An oxidizing acid is a Brønsted acid that is also a strong oxidizing agent . All Brønsted acids can act as moderately strong oxidizing agents, because the acidic proton can be reduced to hydrogen gas. Some acids contain other structures that act as stronger oxidizing agents than hydrogen. Generally, they contain oxygen in the anionic structure. These include nitric acidperchloric acidchloric acidchromic acid, and concentrated sulfuric acid, among others.

+In various burners, the oxidizing flame is the flame produced with an excessive amount of oxygen. When the amount of oxygen increases, the flame shortens, its color darkens, and it hisses and roars.[1]With some exceptions (e.g., platinum soldering in jewelry), the oxidizing flame is usually undesirable for welding and soldering, since, as its name suggests, it oxidizes the metal's surface.

+? (also written Tanda Tanya, meaning Question Mark) is a 2011 Indonesian drama film directed by Hanung Bramantyo. It stars Revalina Sayuthi TematReza RahadianAgus KuncoroEndhita, Rio Dewanto, and Hengky Sulaeman. The theme is Indonesia's religious pluralism, which often results in conflict between religious beliefs, represented in a plot that revolves around the interactions of three families, one Buddhist, one Muslim, and one Catholic

+Kata (型 or 形 literally: "form"?) is a Japanese word describing detailed choreographed patterns of movements practised either solo or in pairs. The term form is used for the corresponding concept in non-Japanese martial arts in general.

+Major General Sir Samuel Roy Burston KBEKStJCBDSOVDFRCPFRCPEFRACP (21 March 1888 – 21 August 1960) was an Australian soldierphysician, and horse racing identity. The son of a prominent Melbourne soldier and businessman, Burston graduated from the University of Melbourne with a Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery in 1910. After graduation he worked with children at the Adelaide Children's Hospital and Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory.

+Ialyssus tuberculatus is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae, the only species in the genus Ialyssus.

+George Graham Vest (December 6, 1830 – August 9, 1904) was a U.S. politician. Born in FrankfortKentucky, he was known for his skills in oration and debate. Vest, a lawyer as well as a politician, served as a Missouri Congressman, a Confederate Congressman during the Civil War, and finally a US Senator. He is best known for his "a man's best friend" closing arguments from the trial in which damages were sought for the killing of a dog named Old Drum on October 18, 1869.

+Bergama is a populous district, as well as the center city of the same district, in İzmir Province in western Turkey

+Donald Robert "Don" Willesee (14 April 1916 – 9 September 2003) was an Australian politician, a member of the Australian Senate for 25 years representing Western Australia, and a Cabinet minister in the Whitlam government.

+Capilano Lake is a lake located in the District of North Vancouver and West Vancouver in British ColumbiaCanada. It is a watershed administered by the Metro Vancouver and accounts for approximately 40% of Greater Vancouver's water supply.[1] The southern part of the lake is within the Capilano River Regional Park; it is also in this area that the lake is separated from the Capilano River's southern portion by the Cleveland Dam.

+The 5th Foreign Infantry Regiment (French5e Régiment Étranger d'Infanterie, 5e REI) was an infantry regiment of the French Foreign Legion. It was based in French Indo-China and existed from 1930 to 1945 and again from 1949 to 1955.

+Adelaide of Hesse (1324–1371) was a daughter of Henry II, Landgrave of Hesse, and his wife Elisabeth of Thuringia. Adelaide was a member of the House of Hesse.

+Alex Okosi is a Nigerian-born, US-educated media executive responsible for developing and launching MTV Africa (MTV base) in February 2005. [1] He has also spearheaded the launch of other localized Viacom brands in Africa encompassing Nickelodeon and Comedy Central. [2]Okosi’s mission in Africa, has always been to develop content and experiences for audiences that not only entertains and showcases the best of African music and entertainment; but also serves to socially empower audiences in Africa and around the world.

+Bastilla absentimacula is a moth of the Noctuidae family. It is found from the Indian subregion to Taiwan and New Guinea.

+DXP synthase is an enzyme in the non-mevalonate pathway. It generates 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate from pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is classified under EC

+1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate is an intermediate in the non-mevalonate pathway.

+The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze.[1] As a system of enzyme nomenclature, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme.

+The non-mevalonate pathway or 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate/1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway (MEP/DOXP pathway) of isoprenoid biosynthesis is an alternative metabolic pathway leading to the formation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP).

+In enzymology, a 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (EC is an enzyme is a lyase which participates in biosynthesis of steroids.

+4-Diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2-phosphate (or 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C methylerythritol 2-phosphate) is an intermediate in the non-mevalonate pathway. It is formed by CDP-ME kinase.

+A bailer in hydrogeology is a hollow tube used to retrieve groundwater samples from monitoring wells. Groundwater monitoring wells are drilled in areas where there are underground storage tanks or where there is environmental remediation occurring. The wells are typically built out of PVC casing which is slotted to allow groundwater to flow freely through the well. Bailers are tied to a piece of rope (usually made from nylon or polypropylene) or a piece of wire (composed of Teflon or stainless steel) and lowered into the water column. Once lowered, the bailer uses a simple ball check valve to seal at the bottom in order to pull up a sample of the groundwater table. Bailers can be disposable or reusable, and they are made out of polyethylene, PVC, FEP or stainless steel.

+A bay dog (or bailer, in Australian English) is a dog that is specially trained to find, chase, and then bay, or howl at from a safe distance, large animals during a hunt, such as during a wild boar hunt.

+Ma'anit (Hebrewמַעֲנִית) is a kibbutz located near the town of Pardes Hanna-Karkur in northern Israel. It falls under the jurisdiction of Menashe Regional Council.

+Paphiopedilum rothschildianum, described in 1888, is a species of orchid commonly known as the King of the Paphs. It is a large sized clear-leafed plant. It blooms with a tall inflorescence with up to six, large flowers. It is unique in the Corypetalum group by holding its petals almost horizontally, giving the flower a very large appearance. The peak flowering period is from April to May.

+Kərkicahan (also, KərgicahanKirdidzhanKirkidzhan, and Krkzhan) is a village in the Khojali Rayon of Azerbaijan.

+The Kirdi are is a term that describes some many cultures and ethnic groups who inhabit northwestern Cameroon and northeastern Nigeria.

+Lieutenant Frederick John Hunt was an English World War I flying ace credited with nine aerial victories.

+John Hunt (1712 – March 31, 1778) was one of the Virginia Exiles, a group of Philadelphia Quakers which was forcibly exiled to Winchester, Virginia, during the Revolutionary War.

+Lord John Frederick Gordon Hallyburton GCH (15 August 1799 – 29 September 1878) was a Scottish naval officer and Member of Parliament.

+Mark Bergman (born July 28, 1973 in MontrealQuebecCanada) is a Canadian radio and television personality.

+Kelimutu ([kəliˈmutu]) is a volcano, close to the small town of Moni about 50 km to the east of Ende, Indonesia in central Flores Island of Indonesia.

+Smedstorp Castle (SwedishSmedstorps slott) is a castle in Tomelilla MunicipalityScania, in southern Sweden.

+Benjamin Matthew "Ben" Ondrus (born June 25, 1982) is a Canadian professional ice hockey right winger currently playing for the Idaho Steelheads of the ECHL.

+Udham Bai (born 17XX) also known as kudsiya Begum or Mumtaz Mahal Sahiba was a queen of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah and an Indian administrator. She served as de facto regent of India from 1748 to 1754. She was also the mother ofAhmad Shah Bahadur.

+Munster, Go Home! is a 1966 American film based on the hit 1960s family television sitcom The Munsters. It was directed by Earl Bellamy, who also directed a number of episodes in the series. The film reunited the original cast, except for Marilyn, who was played by Debbie Watson.

+Rayleigh–Bénard convection is a type of natural convection, occurring in a plane horizontal layer of fluid heated from below, in which the fluid develops a regular pattern of convection cellsknown as Bénard cells. Rayleigh–Bénard convection is one of the most commonly studied convection phenomena because of its analytical and experimental accessibility.[1] The convection patterns are the most carefully examined example of self-organizing nonlinear systems.

+Bernard "Josh" Lay (born September 8, 1982) is an American football cornerback who is currently a member of the Pittsburgh Power of the Arena Football League. He was drafted by the New Orleans Saints in the sixth round of the 2006 NFL Draft. He played college football at Pittsburgh.

+Ableism (pron.: /ˈbəlɪzəm/[1]) is a form of discrimination or social prejudice against people with disabilities. It is known by many names, including disability discriminationphysicalismhandicapism, and disability oppression.[2] It is also sometimes known as disablism, although there is some dispute as to whether ableism and disablism are synonymous, and some people within disability rights circles find the latter term's use inaccurate.[citation needed] Discrimination faced by those who have or are perceived to have a mental disorder is sometimes called mentalism rather than ableism.

+Hypotonia is a state of low muscle tone[1] (the amount of tension or resistance to stretch in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength. Hypotonia is not a specific medical disorder, but a potential manifestation of many different diseases and disorders that affect motor nerve control by the brain or muscle strength.

+Hypoosmolar hyponatremia is a condition where hyponatremia associated with a low plasma osmolality.[1] The term "Hypotonic hyponatremia" is also sometimes used.[2] When the plasma osmolarity is low, the extracellular fluid volume status may be in one of three states: low volume, normal volume, or high volume.

+Hyponatremia (American English) or hyponatraemia (British English) is an electrolyte disturbance in which the sodium (salt) concentration in the serum is lower than normal. (Hypo = low; natraemia = sodium in blood) Sodium is the dominant extracellular cation (positive ion) and cannot freely cross the cell membrane. Its homeostasis (stability) is vital to the normal function of cells. Normal serum sodium levels are between 135 and 145 mEq/L. Hyponatremia is defined as a serum level of less than 135 mEq/L and is considered severe when the serum level is below 125 mEq/L.

+An electrolyte is a compound that ionises when dissolved in suitable ionising solvents such as water. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases.

+In blood, the serum (UK /ˈsɪərəm/ or US /ˈsɪrəm/) is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma with the fibrinogensremoved. Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting (coagulation) and all the electrolytesantibodiesantigenshormones, and any exogenous substances (e.g., drugs and microorganisms).

+Plasma osmolarity measures the body's electrolyte-water balance.[1] There are multiple methods for arriving at this quantity through measurement and calculation.

+Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek γίγας gigas, "giant", plural γίγαντες gigantes), is a condition characterized by excessive growth and height significantly above average. In humans, this condition is caused by over-production of growth hormone[1] in childhood resulting in persons between 7 feet (84 inches) (2.13 m) and 9 feet (108 inches) (2.74 m) in height.

+Dwarfism (pron.: /ˈdwɔrfɪzəm/) occurs when an individual person or animal is short in stature resulting from a medical condition caused by abnormal (slow or delayed) growth. In humans, dwarfism is sometimes defined as an adult height of less than 147 cm (4 feet 10 inches).

+Cockayne syndrome (also called Weber-Cockayne syndrome, or Neill-Dingwall syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive,[1] congenital disorder characterized by growth failure, impaired development of the nervous system, abnormal sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity), and premature aging.

+Acromegaly (pron.: /ˌækrɵˈmɛɡəli/; from Greek άκρος akros "extreme" or "extremities" and μεγάλος megalos "large") is a syndrome that results when the anterior pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (GH) after epiphyseal plate closure at puberty. A number of disorders may increase the pituitary's GH output, although most commonly it involves a GH-producing tumor called pituitary adenoma, derived from a distinct type of cell (somatotrophs).

+Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate pathogenic bacterium in the genus Mycobacterium.[1] It is often abbreviated M. paratuberculosis or M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis. It is the causative agent of Johne's disease, which affects ruminants such as cattle, and also perhaps the human disease Crohn's disease. The type strain is ATCC 19698 (equivalent to CIP 103963 or DSM 44133).

+Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection (MAI)[1] is an atypical mycobacterial infection which can occur in the later stages of AIDS.

+Unification or Death (Serbian: Уједињење или смрт, Ujedinjenje ili smrt),[1] unofficially known as the Black Hand (Црна рука, Crna ruka), was a secret military society[2] formed on 6 September 1901 by members of the Serbian Army in the Kingdom of Serbia.[3] It was formed with the aim of uniting all of the territories with majority South Slavic population not ruled by the Kingdom of Serbia or Kingdom ofMontenegro in the manner of earlier national unification processes, primarily Italian in 1870 and German in 1871.[4][5] Through its connections to the June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinandin Sarajevo, which was committed by the members of youth movement Young Bosnia, the Black Hand is often viewed as the organization that may have contributed to the start of World War I, fueling theJuly Crisis of 1914 and giving Austria-Hungary a pretext to its invasion of independent Serbia.

+La Mano Negra (Spanish, in English, "The Black Hand") was a supposed secret and violent anarchist organization that was founded in AndaluciaSpain at the end of the 19th century.

+Anarchism in Spain has historically gained more support and influence than anywhere else, especially before Francisco Franco's victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39.

+Black band disease is characterized by complete coral tissue degradation due to a pathogenic microbial consortium that appears as a dark red or black migrating microbial mat.[1] The mat is present between apparently healthy coral tissue and freshly exposed coral skeleton.

+A microbial consortium is two or more microbial groups living symbiotically.

+The Black Company or the Black Troops was a unit of Franconian mercenaries during the Peasant's Revolt in the 1520s during the Protestant Reformation in Germany.

+Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип, pronounced [ɡǎʋrilɔ prǐntsip]; 25 July [O.S. 13 July] 1894[2] – 28 April 1918) was the man who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914.

+Zip the Pinhead, real name William Henry Johnson (ca. 1842 in Liberty Corner, New Jersey – April 9, 1926 in New York CityNew York), was an American freak show performer famous for his head, tapered in a way which was not considered typical.

+Spaarnestad Photo is an independent institution formerly located on the Nasssaulaan in Haarlem, in the Netherlands, whose goal is to preserve around 5 million photos.[1] It was founded in 1985.[1] In 2008, the photographic archives of Spaarnestad Photo were moved to the Nationaal Archief in The Hague.[2] The Spaarnestad Photo archives worked with the Nationaal Archief and Wikipedia to place 1000 photos on Wiki Commons in 2010.

+Human zoos (also called ethnological expositions or Negro Villages) were 19th- and 20th-century public exhibits of humans, usually in a so-called natural or primitive state. The displays often emphasized the cultural differences between Europeans of Western civilization and non-European peoples. 

+Comprachicos (also Comprapequeños and Cheylas) is a compound Spanish neologism meaning "child-buyers," which was coined by Victor Hugo in his novel The Man Who Laughs.[1] It refers to various groups in folklore who were said to change the physical appearance of human beings by manipulating growing children, in a similar way to the horticultural method of bonsai – that is, deliberate mutilation. The most common methods said to be used in this practice included stunting children's growth by physical restraintmuzzling their faces to deform them, slitting their eyes, dislocating their joints, and malforming their bones.

+Bonsai (盆栽?, lit. plantings in tray, from bon, a tray or low-sided pot and sai, a planting or plantings, About this sound pronunciation (help·info))[1] is a Japanese art form using miniature trees grown in containers.

+A charlatan (also called swindler or mountebank) is a person practicing quackery or some similar confidence trick in order to obtain money, fame or other advantages via some form of pretense ordeception.

+A jester, or fool, was a historical person employed to entertain a ruler in medieval times and can also be a modern entertainer who performs at mostly medieval themed events.

+William Merritt Chase (November 1, 1849 – October 25, 1916) was an American painter, known as an exponent of Impressionism and as a teacher. He is also responsible for establishing the Chase School, which later would become Parsons The New School for Design.

+The Jim Rose Circus is a modern-day version of a circus sideshow.[1][2] It was founded in Seattle by Jim Rose in the early 1990s. The sideshow came to prominence to an American audience as a second stage show at the 1992 Lollapaloozafestival, then called the Jim Rose Circus Sideshow, although they had made several TV appearances in the UK before this time. Rolling Stone magazine called it "the absolute must-see act" and USA Today termed Rose's troupe "Lollapalooza's word-of-mouth hit attraction".

+Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet (c. 1715 – 11 July 1774) was an Anglo-Irish official of the British Empire. As a young man, Johnson moved to the Province of New York to manage an estate purchased by his uncle, Admiral Peter Warren, which was located amidst the Mohawk, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. Johnson learned the Mohawk language and Iroquois customs, and was appointed the British agent to the Iroquois. Because of his success, he was appointed in 1756 as British Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the northern colonies.

+William Johnson (1855 – May 20, 1903) was a United States Navy sailor and a recipient of America's highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor.

+Neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1), formerly known as von Recklinghausen disease after the researcher (Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen) who first documented the disorder, is a human genetic disorder. It is possibly the most common inherited disorder caused by a single gene.

+Asphyxia or asphyxiation (from Greek α- "without" and σφύξις sphyxis, "heartbeat") is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from being unable to breathe normally.

+Sarah "Saartjie" Baartman (before 1790 – 29 December 1815)[1] (also spelled Bartman, Bartmann, Baartmen) was the most famous of at least two[2] Khoikhoi women who were exhibited as freak showattractions in 19th-century Europe under the name Hottentot Venus—"Hottentot" as the then-current name for the Khoi people, now considered an offensive term,[3] and "Venus" in reference to the Roman goddess of love.

+Peter the GreatPeter I or Pyotr Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич, Пётр I, Pyotr I, or Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velikiy) (9 June [O.S. 30 May] 1672 – 8 February [O.S. 28 January] 1725)[a] ruled theTsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother. In numerous successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a huge empire that became a major European power.

+Lazarus Colloredo and Joannes Baptista Colloredo (1617 – after 1646) were Italian conjoined twins who toured in 17th century Europe. They were born in GenoaItaly.

+Ectrodactyly involves the deficiency or absence of one or more central digits of the hand or foot and is also known as split hand/split foot malformation (SHFM).[1] The hands and feet of people with ectrodactyly are often described as "claw-like" and may include only the thumb and one finger (usually either the little finger, ring finger, or a syndactyly of the two) with similar abnormalities of the feet.

+Joseph DeLuca (March 17, 1893 – March 20, 1952) was an Italian-American mobster who controlled the smuggling and distribution of narcotics with his brother Frank Deluca in Kansas City, Missouri for almost four decades.

+The term narcotic (pronunciation: /nɑrˈkɒtɨk/, from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "Ι benumb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with any sleep-inducing properties.

+Daryl Keith Holton (November 23, 1961 – September 12, 2007)[1] was an American convicted child killer, executed by electrocution by the state of Tennessee on September 12, 2007 in Riverbend Maximum Security Institution in Nashville.

+Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2 SO4. It is a pungent-ethereal, colorless to slightly yellow viscous liquid which is soluble in water at all concentrations.[4] Sometimes, it may be dark brown as dyed during its industrial production process in order to alert people to its hazards.

+Rio Tinto Group is a British-Australian multinational metals and mining corporation with headquarters in London, UK and a management office in Melbourne, Australia. The company's name comes from the Rio Tinto river in southwestern Spain, which has flowed red since mining began there about 5000 years ago, due to acid mine drainage.

+The Malmedy massacre was a war crime in which 80 American prisoners of war were murdered by their German captors during World War II. The massacre was committed on December 17, 1944, by members of Kampfgruppe Peiper (part of the 1st SS Panzer Division), a German combat unit, during the Battle of the Bulge.

+The Flensburg Government (German: Flensburger Regierung), also known as the Flensburg Cabinet (German: Flensburger Kabinett) and the Dönitz Government (German: Regierung Dönitz), was the short-lived administration that attempted to rule Nazi Germany during a period of several weeks directly before and after the end of World War II in Europe.

+A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains monovalent combining group CN. This group, known as the cyano group, consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom.

+Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) (with the alternate archaic name of prussic acid) is an inorganic compound[6] with chemical formula HCN. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous liquid that boils slightly aboveroom temperature at 26 °C (79 °F). Hydrogen cyanide is a linear molecule, with a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen. A minor tautomer of HCN is HNC, hydrogen isocyanide.

+Tautomers are isomers (constitutional isomers) of organic compounds that readily interconvert by a chemical reaction called tautomerization.

+Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of bacteria (but not Archaea), forming the cell wall. The sugar component consists of alternating residues of β-(1,4) linked N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid.

+Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction,[1] causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles. This is accomplished either by actingpresynaptically via the inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis or release or by acting postsynaptically at the acetylcholine receptors of the motor nerve end-plate.

+A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other on a surface. These adherent cells are frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Biofilm EPS, which is also referred to as slime (although not everything described as slime is a biofilm), is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNAproteins, and polysaccharides. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings.

+Extracellular polymeric substances, also known as exopolysaccharide, or EPS, are high-molecular weight compounds secreted by microorganisms into their environment.[1] EPS establish the functional and structural integrity of biofilms, and are considered the fundamental component that determines the physiochemical properties of a biofilm.[2]

+Signed into effect on 12 June 2002, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response Act, (PHSBPRA) was signed by the President, the Department of Health and Human Services DHHS and the U.S. Department of AgricultureUSDA.

+Ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) marketed as VascepaEpadelEPAX, is a synthetic derivative of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In Japan E-EPA is often called EPA-E. This compound has been FDA-approved for use for reduction of high triglyceride levels. E-EPA may exihibit antipsychotic and antidepressive effects,[1] and it is therefore of special interest in psychiatry.

+A triglyceride (TGtriacylglycerolTAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids.

+Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. In physiological literature, it is given the name 20:5(n-3). It also has the trivial nametimnodonic acid. In chemical structure, EPA is a carboxylic acid with a 20-carbon chain and five cis double bonds; the first double bond is located at the third carbon from the omega end.

+Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories), thiopentalthiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic. Sodium thiopental is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic healthcare system.[3] It is also usually the first of three drugs administered during most lethal injections in the United States.

+A benzodiazepine /ˌbɛnzɵdˈæzɨpn/ (sometimes colloquially "benzo"; often abbreviated "BZD") is a psychoactive drug whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepinering. The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has also marketed diazepam(Valium) since 1963.[1]

+psychoactive drugpsychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that crosses the blood–brain barrier and acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it affects brainfunction, resulting in alterations in perceptionmoodconsciousnesscognition, and behavior.

+Chlordiazepoxide[1] (pron.: /ˌklɔərd.əzɨˈpɒksd/), is a sedative/hypnotic drug and benzodiazepine. It is marketed under the trade names AngirexEleniumKlopoxidLibrax (also contains clidinium bromide), LibritabsLibriumMesuralMultumNovapamRisolidSilibrinSonimen and Tropium.

+The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel. Its endogenous ligand is γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitoryneurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Upon activation, the GABAA receptor selectively conducts Cl- through its pore, resulting in hyperpolarization of the neuron. This causes an inhibitory effect on neurotransmission by diminishing the chance of a successful action potential occurring. The reversal potential of the GABAA-mediated IPSP in normal solution is -75 mV, contrasting the GABAB IPSP.

+γ-Aminobutyric acid (pron.: /ˈɡæmə əˈmnbjuːˈtɪrɨk ˈæsɨd/ gam-ə ə-mee-noh-byew-tirr-ik; or GABA /ˈɡæbə/) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone.

+Titin (pron.: /ˈttɪn/), also known as connectin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTN gene.[1][2] Titin is a giant protein that functions as a molecular spring which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle. It is composed of 244 individually folded protein domains connected by unstructured peptide sequences.[3] These domains unfold when the protein is stretched andrefold when the tension is removed.[4] With its length of ~27,000 to ~33,000 amino acids (depending on the splice isoform), titin is the largest known protein.[7] Furthermore the gene for titin contains the largest number of exons (363) discovered in any single gene.

+Sodium nitroprusside is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]·2H2O.[1] This red-coloured salt, which is often abbreviated SNP, is a potent vasodilator. The sodium salt dissolves in water and to a lesser extent in ethanol to give solutions containing the dianion [Fe(CN)5NO]2−.

+Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia.

+Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 2 is the second largest human chromosome, spanning more than 243 million base pairs[1] (the building material of DNA) and representing almost 8% of the total DNA in cells.

+An exon is any nucleotide sequence encoded by a gene that remains present within the final mature RNA product of that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.

+An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing while the final mature RNA product of a gene is being generated.

+Alternative splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins.

+Pancuronium (trademarked as Pavulon) is a muscle relaxant with various purposes. It is the second of three drugs administered during most lethal injections in the United States.

+The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. In its pure state, it is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance, with a crystal structure that cleaves easily in three directions. Potassium chloride crystals are face-centered cubic.

+In crystallography, the cubic (or isometriccrystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. This is one of the most common and simplest shapes found in crystals andminerals.

+The Yoshimoto Cube is a polyhedral mechanical puzzle toy invented[1] in 1971 by Naoki Yoshimoto (吉本直貴 Yoshimoto Naoki?), who discovered that two rhombic dodecahedrons could be pieced together into a square when he was finding different ways he could split a cube equally in half.

+In geometry, a dodecahedron (Greek δωδεκάεδρον, from δώδεκα, dōdeka "twelve" + ἕδρα hédra "base", "seat" or "face") is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces, but usually a regular dodecahedron is meant: a Platonic solid.

+The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is an iron sulfide with the formula Fe S2. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. The color has also led to the nicknames brassbrazzle and Brazil, primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal.

+Facets are flat faces on geometric shapes. The organization of naturally occurring facets was key to early developments in crystallography, since they reflect the underlying symmetry of the crystal structure.

+The Newhall massacre or Newhall Incident was a shootout between two heavily armed criminals and officers of the California Highway Patrol (CHP) in the Newhall unincorporated area of Los Angeles CountyCalifornia on April 6, 1970. In less than 5 minutes, four CHP officers were killed in what was at the time the deadliest day in the history of California law enforcement.

+Form P11D (Expenses and Benefits) is a tax form filed by United Kingdom employers for each director and for each employee earning over £8500 per year, and sent to the tax office with which their PAYE scheme is registered.

+S100-A10, also known as p11, is a protein[1] that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and the S100a10 gene in other species.[2][3] S100-A10 is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells.

+Pseudomonas sRNA P11 is a ncRNA that was predicted using bioinformatic tools in the genome of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its expression verified by northern blotanalysis.

+In biologyBioinformatics Listeni/ˌb.ˌɪnfərˈmætɪks/ is an interdisciplinary field that develops and improves upon methods for storing, retrieving, organizing and analyzing biological data.

+Control theory is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics that deals with the behavior of dynamical systems with inputs.

+A serine/threonine protein kinase (EC is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine (which have similar sidechains). At least 125 of the 500+ human protein kinases are serine/threonine kinases (STK).[2]

+Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO43-) group to a protein or other organic molecule.

+Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3. It is a colorless, flammable, toxic gas.

+Phosphuranylite is a uranyl phosphate mineral with formula KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4·8(H2O).[1][2][3] It was first described in 1879 by Frederick Augustus Genth, from an occurrence in the Flat Rock pegmatite in Mitchell County, North Carolina, USA.[2]

+A plasma railgun is a linear accelerator which, like a projectile railgun, uses two long parallel electrodes to accelerate a "sliding short" armature.

+Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) describes a class of fusion devices which combine aspects of magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion in an attempt to lower the cost of fusion devices.

+Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to generating fusion power that uses magnetic fields to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a plasma.

+Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a 259-kilogram (569 lbrobotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturnsolar wind,cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the solar system and heliosphere.

+In the theory of discrete-time stochastic processes, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrablestochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph Leo Doob.

+A helix (pl: helixes or helices) is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space. It has the property that the tangent line at any point makes a constant angle with a fixed line called the axis. Examples of helixes are coil springs and the handrails of spiral staircases.

+A programming paradigm is a fundamental style of computer programming. There are four main paradigms: object-orientedimperativefunctional anddeclarative.[1] Their foundations are distinct models of computationTuring machine for object-oriented and imperative programming, lambda calculus for functional programming, and first order logic for logic programming.

+Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus or called "the lambda calculus") is a formal system in mathematical logic and computer science for expressing computation by way of variable binding and substitution. First formulated by Alonzo Church, lambda calculus found early successes in the area of computability theory, such as a negative answer to Hilbert's Entscheidungsproblem.

+A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to createprograms that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely.

+WebGL (Web Graphics Library) is a JavaScript API for rendering interactive 3D graphics and 2D graphics[2] within any compatible web browser without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is integrated completely into all the web standards of the browser allowing GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing and effects as part of the web page canvas.

+Musa I (c. 1280 – c. 1337), commonly referred to as Mansa Musa, was the tenth Mansa, which translates as "King of Kings" or "Emperor", of the wealthy Malian Empire. At the time of Mansa Musa's rise to the throne, the Malian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire and Melle (Mali) and immediate surrounding areas, and Musa held many titles, including: Emir of MelleLord of the Mines of Wangara, andConqueror of Ghanata, Futa-Jallon, and at least another dozen.

+ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements, and (c) continually improve in the above.

+2600: The Hacker Quarterly is an American publication that specializes in publishing technical information on a variety of subjects including telephone switching systemsInternet protocols and services, as well as general news concerning the computer "underground" and left wing, and sometimes (but not recently), anarchist issues.

+The Museo Soumaya is a private museum in Mexico City with free admission. It is owned by the Carlos Slim Foundation and contains the extensive art, religious relics, historical documents, and coin collection of Carlos Slim and his late wife Soumaya, after whom the museum was named.

+Paper wealth means wealth as measured by monetary value, as reflected in the price of assets – how much money one's assets could be sold for. Paper wealth is contrasted with real wealth, which refers to one's actual physical assets.

+Telmex is a Mexican telecommunications company headquartered in Mexico City that provides telecommunications products and services in Mexico,[2]ArgentinaColombiaBrazil (Embratel) and other countries in Latin America.

+América Móvil is a Mexican telecommunication company headquartered in Mexico City, Mexico. It is the fourth largest mobile network operator in terms of equity subscribers and one of the largest corporations in the world.

+Industria de Diseño Textil, S.A. (Inditex) (/ˌɪndɪˈtɛks/, Spanish: [indiˈteks]; Textile Design Industries) is a Spanish multinational clothing company headquartered in ArteixoGalicia, Spain. It is made up of almost a hundred companies dealing in activities related to textile design, production and distribution.Amancio OrtegaSpain's richest man, and the world's third richest man, is the founder and current largest shareholder. 

+Cornelius Vanderbilt (May 27, 1794 – January 4, 1877), also known by the sobriquet Commodore,[2] was an American industrialist and philanthropist who built his wealth in shipping and railroads. He was also the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family and one of the richest Americans in history. He provided the initial gift to found Vanderbilt University, which is named in his honor.

+Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi[6] (Arabic: معمر محمد أبو منيار القذافي‎ pron.: /ˈm.əmɑr ɡəˈdɑːfi/ About this sound audio (help·info)) (c. 1942 – 20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi,[nb 3] was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as the ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011, during which industry and business was nationalized. 

+The Third International Theory, the Third Universal Theory (Arabic: نظرية عالمية ثالثة), or simply called Gaddafiism, refers to the style of government proposed by Col. Muammar Gaddafi in the early 1970s, on which his government, the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, was officially based.

+William I (Old NormanWilliame Ic. 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard,[2][a] was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. Descended from Viking raiders, he had been Duke of Normandy since 1035 under the title of William II. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England in 1066.

+Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi GCSIGBE Asaf Jah VII (Urdu: آصف جاہ‎), born Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi Bahadur (Urdu: عثمان علی خان بہادر‎; 6 April 1886 – 24 February 1967), was the last Nizam (or ruler) of the Princely State of Hyderabad and of Berar. He ruled Hyderabad between 1911 and 1948, until it wasmerged into India.

+Osman Hassan Ali Atto[1] (SomaliCismaan Xasan Cali Caato) (born c. 1940[citation needed]) is a Somali warlord, affiliated with the Somali National Alliance.

+Nikola Altomanović (Vojinović) (Serbian: Никола Алтомановић, Nikola Altomanović) was Serbian župan from 14th century. He ruled vast areas from Rudnik, over PolimljePodrinje, east Herzegovina with Trebinje, till Konavle and Dračevica, neighboring the Republic of Dubrovnik. He was defeated and blinded in Užice(fortress Užice) in 1373 by a coalition of his Serbian and Bosnian royals neighbors supported by the king of Hungary.

+Andrew Carnegie (pron.: /kɑrˈnɡi/ kar-nay-gee, but commonly /ˈkɑrnɨɡi/ kar-nə-gee or /kɑrˈnɛɡi/ kar-neg-ee;[1] November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was aScottish-American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. 

+John Davison Rockefeller (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) was an American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modernphilanthropy. In 1870, he founded the Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it until he officially retired in 1897.

+The petroleum industry includes the global processes of explorationextractionrefining, transporting (often by oil tankers andpipelines), and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline (petrol).

+The Rothschild family (pron.: /ˈrɒθs.ld/, German: [ˈʁoːt.ʃɪlt], French: [ʁɔt.ʃild], Italian: [ˈrɔtʃild]), or more simply as the Rothschilds, is a family, originating inFrankfurt, Germany, that established a European banking dynasty starting in the late 18th century, that came even to surpass the most powerful families of the 1700s such as Baring and Berenberg. The wealth of the Rothschild family at its height during the mid-19th century has been estimated in today's terms in the hundred millions of billions or even in the trillions of dollars.


+In the theory of discrete-time stochastic processes, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrablestochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph Leo Doob.

+A helix (pl: helixes or helices) is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space. It has the property that the tangent line at any point makes a constant angle with a fixed line called the axis. Examples of helixes are coil springs and the handrails of spiral staircases.

+A programming paradigm is a fundamental style of computer programming. There are four main paradigms: object-orientedimperativefunctional anddeclarative.[1] Their foundations are distinct models of computationTuring machine for object-oriented and imperative programming, lambda calculus for functional programming, and first order logic for logic programming.

+Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus or called "the lambda calculus") is a formal system in mathematical logic and computer science for expressing computation by way of variable binding and substitution. First formulated by Alonzo Church, lambda calculus found early successes in the area of computability theory, such as a negative answer to Hilbert's Entscheidungsproblem.

+A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to createprograms that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely.

+WebGL (Web Graphics Library) is a JavaScript API for rendering interactive 3D graphics and 2D graphics[2] within any compatible web browser without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is integrated completely into all the web standards of the browser allowing GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing and effects as part of the web page canvas.

+Musa I (c. 1280 – c. 1337), commonly referred to as Mansa Musa, was the tenth Mansa, which translates as "King of Kings" or "Emperor", of the wealthy Malian Empire. At the time of Mansa Musa's rise to the throne, the Malian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire and Melle (Mali) and immediate surrounding areas, and Musa held many titles, including: Emir of MelleLord of the Mines of Wangara, andConqueror of Ghanata, Futa-Jallon, and at least another dozen.

+ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements, and (c) continually improve in the above.

+2600: The Hacker Quarterly is an American publication that specializes in publishing technical information on a variety of subjects including telephone switching systemsInternet protocols and services, as well as general news concerning the computer "underground" and left wing, and sometimes (but not recently), anarchist issues.

+The Museo Soumaya is a private museum in Mexico City with free admission. It is owned by the Carlos Slim Foundation and contains the extensive art, religious relics, historical documents, and coin collection of Carlos Slim and his late wife Soumaya, after whom the museum was named.

+Paper wealth means wealth as measured by monetary value, as reflected in the price of assets – how much money one's assets could be sold for. Paper wealth is contrasted with real wealth, which refers to one's actual physical assets.

+Telmex is a Mexican telecommunications company headquartered in Mexico City that provides telecommunications products and services in Mexico,[2]ArgentinaColombiaBrazil (Embratel) and other countries in Latin America.

+América Móvil is a Mexican telecommunication company headquartered in Mexico City, Mexico. It is the fourth largest mobile network operator in terms of equity subscribers and one of the largest corporations in the world.

+Industria de Diseño Textil, S.A. (Inditex) (/ˌɪndɪˈtɛks/, Spanish: [indiˈteks]; Textile Design Industries) is a Spanish multinational clothing company headquartered in ArteixoGalicia, Spain. It is made up of almost a hundred companies dealing in activities related to textile design, production and distribution.Amancio OrtegaSpain's richest man, and the world's third richest man, is the founder and current largest shareholder. 

+Cornelius Vanderbilt (May 27, 1794 – January 4, 1877), also known by the sobriquet Commodore,[2] was an American industrialist and philanthropist who built his wealth in shipping and railroads. He was also the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family and one of the richest Americans in history. He provided the initial gift to found Vanderbilt University, which is named in his honor.

+Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi[6] (Arabic: معمر محمد أبو منيار القذافي‎ pron.: /ˈm.əmɑr ɡəˈdɑːfi/ About this sound audio (help·info)) (c. 1942 – 20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi,[nb 3] was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as the ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011, during which industry and business was nationalized. 

+The Third International Theory, the Third Universal Theory (Arabic: نظرية عالمية ثالثة), or simply called Gaddafiism, refers to the style of government proposed by Col. Muammar Gaddafi in the early 1970s, on which his government, the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, was officially based.

+William I (Old NormanWilliame Ic. 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard,[2][a] was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. Descended from Viking raiders, he had been Duke of Normandy since 1035 under the title of William II. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England in 1066.

+Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi GCSIGBE Asaf Jah VII (Urdu: آصف جاہ‎), born Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi Bahadur (Urdu: عثمان علی خان بہادر‎; 6 April 1886 – 24 February 1967), was the last Nizam (or ruler) of the Princely State of Hyderabad and of Berar. He ruled Hyderabad between 1911 and 1948, until it wasmerged into India.

+Osman Hassan Ali Atto[1] (SomaliCismaan Xasan Cali Caato) (born c. 1940[citation needed]) is a Somali warlord, affiliated with the Somali National Alliance.

+Nikola Altomanović (Vojinović) (Serbian: Никола Алтомановић, Nikola Altomanović) was Serbian župan from 14th century. He ruled vast areas from Rudnik, over PolimljePodrinje, east Herzegovina with Trebinje, till Konavle and Dračevica, neighboring the Republic of Dubrovnik. He was defeated and blinded in Užice(fortress Užice) in 1373 by a coalition of his Serbian and Bosnian royals neighbors supported by the king of Hungary.

+Andrew Carnegie (pron.: /kɑrˈnɡi/ kar-nay-gee, but commonly /ˈkɑrnɨɡi/ kar-nə-gee or /kɑrˈnɛɡi/ kar-neg-ee;[1] November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was aScottish-American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. 

+John Davison Rockefeller (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) was an American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modernphilanthropy. In 1870, he founded the Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it until he officially retired in 1897.

+The petroleum industry includes the global processes of explorationextractionrefining, transporting (often by oil tankers andpipelines), and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline (petrol).

+The Rothschild family (pron.: /ˈrɒθs.ld/, German: [ˈʁoːt.ʃɪlt], French: [ʁɔt.ʃild], Italian: [ˈrɔtʃild]), or more simply as the Rothschilds, is a family, originating inFrankfurt, Germany, that established a European banking dynasty starting in the late 18th century, that came even to surpass the most powerful families of the 1700s such as Baring and Berenberg. The wealth of the Rothschild family at its height during the mid-19th century has been estimated in today's terms in the hundred millions of billions or even in the trillions of dollars.

+The Pythia (pronounced /ˈpɪθiə/ or /ˈpθiə/Greek: Πυθία [pyːˈtʰi.a]), commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi, was the priestess at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus, beneath the Castalian Spring. The Pythia was widely credited for her prophecies inspired by Apollo. The Delphic oracle was established in the 8th century BC,[1] although it may have been present in some form in Late Mycenaean times,[2] from 1,400 BC and was abandoned, and there is evidence that Apollo took over the shrine from an earlier dedication to Gaia.

+Pseudoarchaeology — also known as alternative archaeologyfringe archaeologyfantastic archaeology, or cult archaeology — refers to interpretations of the past from outside of the academic archaeological community, which typically also reject the accepted scientific and analytical methods of the discipline.

+Michel de Nostredame (14 or 21 December 1503[1] – 2 July 1566), usually Latinized as Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous worldwide. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Since the publication of this book, which has rarely been out of print since his death, Nostradamus has attracted a following that, along with much of the popular press, credits him with predicting many major world events.

+Apothecary (pron.: /əˈpɒθɨkəri/) is a historical name for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicianssurgeons and patients — a role now served by a pharmacist (or achemist or dispensing chemist) and some caregivers. Apothecary could date back to 2600 BC to ancient Babylon, which provides one of the earliest records of the practice of the apothecary. Clay tablets were found with medical texts recording symptoms, the prescriptions, and the directions for compounding it.[2] The Papyrus Ebers from ancient Egypt, written around 1500 B.C., contain a collection of more than 800 prescriptions, or ancient recipes for the apothecaries of the time. It mentions over 700 different drugs.

+Astrology consists of belief systems which hold that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world. In the West, astrology most often consists of a system of horoscopes that claim to explain aspects of a person's personality and predict future events in their life based on the positions of the sun, moon, and other planetary objects at the time of their birth.

+Theophilus de Garencières (1610–1680)[1] was a French apothecary who spent most of his life practising in England. Born in Paris, Garencières studied the prophecies of Nostradamus at an early age, and these had a lasting effect on him. He studied at the University of Caen, which he left with a Doctorate of Medicine in 1636. To avoid religious persecution, he moved to the University of Oxford during the 1640s, which finally granted him the same qualification in 1657.

+Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state. All quantum mechanical systems undergo fluctuations even in their ground state and have an associated zero-point energy, a consequence of their wave-like nature. The uncertainty principle requires every physical system to have a zero-point energy greater than the minimum of its classical potential well. This results in motion even at absolute zero. For example, liquid helium does not freeze under atmospheric pressure at any temperature because of its zero-point energy.

+In theosophy and anthroposophy, the akashic records (from akasha, the Sanskrit word for 'sky' 'space' or 'aether') are a compendium of mystical knowledge supposedly encoded in a non-physical plane of existence. The akashic records – akasha is a Sanskrit word meaning "sky", "space" or "aether" – are described as containing all knowledge of human experience and all experiences as well as the history of the cosmos encoded or written in the very aether or fabric of all existence. The records or The Book of Life in the Bible (Psalm 69:28, Philippians 4:3, Revelation 3:5, 13:8, 17:8, 20:12, 20:15 and Revelation 21:27) are metaphorically on a non-physical plane described as a library; other analogies commonly found in discourse on the subject include a "universal supercomputer" and the "Mind of God".

+Über die spezielle und die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie  (The Special and the General Theory of Relativity)  is the title of one of Albert Einstein wrote essays from 1916, where it meets the basic ideas of going back to him Relativity a scientifically and philosophically interested readers imagine.

+James Alexander Dewar (February 5, 1897 – June 30, 1985) was an American inventor of the Twinkie.

+James Dewey WatsonKBEForMemRS (born April 6, 1928), is an American molecular biologistgeneticist, and zoologist, best known as a co-discoverer of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick.

+The Baghdad Battery, sometimes referred to as the Parthian Battery, is the common name for a number of artifacts created in Mesopotamia, during the dynasties of Parthian or Sassanid period (the early centuries AD), and probably discovered in 1936 in the village of Khuyut Rabbou'a, near BaghdadIraq. These artifacts came to wider attention in 1938 when Wilhelm König, the German director of the National Museum of Iraq, found the objects in the museum's collections. In 1940, König published a paper speculating that they may have been galvanic cells, perhaps used for electroplating gold onto silverobjects.[2][3] Though far from settled, this interpretation continues to be considered as at least a hypothetical possibility.[4] If correct, the artifacts would predate Alessandro Volta's 1800 invention of theelectrochemical cell by more than a millennium.

+Dendera Temple complex, (Ancient EgyptianIunet or Tantere; the 19th century English spelling in most sources, including Belzoni, was Tentyra) is located about 2.5 km south-east of Dendera,Egypt. It is one of the best-preserved temple complexes in Egypt. The area was used as the sixth Nome of Upper Egypt, south of Abydos.

+Giovanni Battista Belzoni (Italian pronunciation: [dʒoˈvanni batˈtista belˈdzoːni]; 5 November 1778 – 3 December 1823), sometimes known as The Great Belzoni, was a prolific Italian explorer of Egyptianantiquities.

+The "Dendera light" is a technology of electrical lighting supposedly in existence in ancient Egypt, proposed by some fringe authors. Proponents argue that the technology is depicted in theHathor temple at the Dendera Temple complex located in Egypt on three stone reliefs (one single and a double representation), which resemble some modern electrical lighting systems. Egyptologists reject the theory and explain the reliefs as a typical set of symbolic images from Egyptian mythology.

+The sculptured Dendera zodiac (or Denderah zodiac) is a widely known Egyptian bas-relief from the ceiling of the pronaos (or portico) of a chapel dedicated to Osiris in the Hathor temple at Dendera, containing images of Taurus (the bull) and the Libra (the scales). This chapel was begun in the late Ptolemaic period; its pronaos was added by the emperor Tiberius. This led Jean-François Champollion to date the relief correctly to the Greco-Roman period, but most of his contemporaries believed it to be of the New Kingdom.

+The Musée du Louvre (French pronunciation: ​[myze dy luvʁ])—in English, the Louvre Museum or simply The Louvre—is one of the world's largest museums, and a historic monument. A central landmark of Paris, France, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (district).

+Piezoelectricity (pron.: /piˌzˌilɛkˈtrɪsɪti/) is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (notably crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins)[1] in response to applied mechanicalstress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure. It is derived from the Greek piezo or piezein (πιέζειν), which means to squeeze or press, and electric or electron (ήλεκτρον), which stands for amber, an ancient source of electric charge.[2] Piezoelectricity was discovered in 1880 by French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie[3] The piezoelectric effect is understood as the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and the electrical state in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry.[4] The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force) also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an applied electrical field). For example, lead zirconate titanate crystals will generate measurable piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by about 0.1% of the original dimension. Conversely, those same crystals will change about 0.1% of their static dimension when an external electric field is applied to the material. The inverse piezoelectric effect is used in production of ultrasonic sound waves.[5] Piezoelectricity is found in useful applications such as the production and detection of sound, generation of high voltages, electronic frequency generation, microbalances, and ultrafine focusing of optical assemblies. It is also the basis of a number of scientific instrumental techniques with atomic resolution, the scanning probe microscopies such as STMAFMMTASNOM, etc., and everyday uses such as acting as the ignition source for cigarette lighters and push-start propane barbecues.

+The Ångström ([ˈɔŋstrøm]) is a unit of length equal to 10−10 m (one ten-billionth of a meter) or 0.1 nm. Its symbol is the Swedish letter Å.

+Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 siliconoxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. Especially in Europe and the Middle East, varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "Quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc", which probably originated in Slavic (cf. Czech tvrdý ("hard"), Polish twardy ("hard")).

+Ableism (pron.: /ˈbəlɪzəm/[1]) is a form of perceived discrimination or social prejudice against people with disabilities. It is known by many names, including disability discriminationphysicalismhandicapism, and disability oppression.[2] It is also sometimes known as disablism, although there is some dispute as to whether ableism and disablism are synonymous, and some people within disability rights circles find the latter term's use inaccurate.[citation needed] Discrimination faced by those who have or are perceived to have a mental disorder is sometimes called mentalism rather than ableism.

+The Mogao Caves or Mogao Grottoes (ChinesepinyinMògāo kū), also known as the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas (Chinese: 千佛洞; pinyinqiān fó dòng), form a system of 492 temples 25 km (16 mi) southeast of the center of Dunhuang, an oasis strategically located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu province, China. The caves may also be known as the Dunhuang Caves, however, this term is also used to include other Buddhist cave sites in the Dunhuang area, such as the Western Thousand Buddha Caves, and theYulin Caves farther away. The caves contain some of the finest examples of Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years.[1] The first caves were dug out 366 CE as places of Buddhist meditation and worship.[2] The Mogao Caves are the best known of the Chinese Buddhist grottoes and, along with Longmen Grottoes and Yungang Grottoes, are one of the three famous ancient Buddhist sculptural sites of China.

+The Western Thousand Buddha Caves (Chinese西pinyinXī Qiānfó Dòng) is a Buddhist cave temple site in DunhuangGansu Province, China. The site is located approximately 35 km southwest of the urban centre and about the same distance from the Yangguan Pass; the area served as a staging post for travellers on the Silk Road.

+The International Dunhuang Project (IDP) is an international collaborative effort to conserve, catalogue and digitise manuscripts, printed texts, paintings, textiles and artefacts from Dunhuang and various other archaeological sites at the eastern end of the Silk Road.

+The Dunhuang map or Dunhuang Star map is one of the first known graphical representations of stars from ancient Chinese astronomy, dated to the Tang Dynasty (618–907). Before this map, much of the star information mentioned in historical Chinese texts had been questioned.[2] The map provides a graphical verification of the star observations, and are part of a series of pictures on one of the Dunhuang manuscripts.

+Mount Kailash (also Mount Kailas; (Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ,Sanskrit: कैलाश् Kangrinboqê or Gang Rinpochesimplified Chinese: 冈仁波齐峰, Gāngrénbōqí fēng) is a peak in the Kailas Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which are part of the Transhimalaya in Tibet.

+The Indus River is a major river in Asia which flows through Pakistan and India. It also has courses through western Tibet (in the People's Republic of China) and Northern India. Originating in theTibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, towards Gilgit and Baltistan and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh.

+Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur (14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530; sometimes also spelt Baber or Babar) was a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor.

+A stupa (from Sanskrit: m., स्तूप, stūpaSinhaleseස්ථූපයPāli: थुप "thūpa", literally meaning "heap") is a mound-like or breast-shaped structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the ashes of deceased, used by Buddhists as a place of meditation.

+Mohenjo-daro (IPA[muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ]Urdu: موئن جودڑو‎, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, lit. Mound of the Dead; English pronunciation: /mˌhɛn. ˈdɑː.r/), is an archeological site in the province of Sindh,Pakistan. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient EgyptMesopotamia, and Crete. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE, and was not rediscovered until 1922. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.[1] However, the site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.

+Wang Yuanlu (Traditional Chinese: 王圓籙; Simplified Chinese: 王圆箓; pinyin: Wáng Yuánlù) (c.a. 1849 - 1931) was a Taoist priest and abbot of the Mogao Caves at Dunhuang during the early 20th century. He is credited with the discovery of the Dunhuang manuscripts while engaged in the restoration of the site and the subsequent sale of numerous manuscripts to Westerners.

+Zhang Qian (Chang Chiensimplified Chinese: 张骞; traditional Chinese: 張騫) was an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. He was the first official diplomat to bring back reliable information about Central Asia to the Chinese imperial court, then under Emperor Wu of Han, and played an important pioneering role in the Chinese colonization and conquest of the region now known as Xinjiang.

+Nabta Playa was once a large basin in the Nubian Desert, located approximately 800 kilometers south of modern day Cairo[1] or about 100 kilometers west of Abu Simbel in southern Egypt,[2] 22° 32' north, 30° 42' east.[3] Today the region is characterized by numerous archaeological sites.

+The Solar Sentinels is a space mission to study the Sun during its solar maximum, the last before the beginning of the Orion program.[dated info] Six spacecraft will be launched, which will separate into three groups. The Solar Sentinels are part of the NASA program Living With a Star.

+The Yangshan Quarry (Chinese阳山pinyinYángshān bēi cái; literally "Yangshan Stele Material") is an ancient stone quarry near Nanjing, China. Used during many centuries as a source of stone for buildings and monuments of Nanjing, it is presently preserved as a historic site. 

+Baalbek, also known as Baalbeck (Arabic: بعلبك‎ / ALA-LCBaʻalbakLebanese pronunciation: [ˈbʕalbak]) is a town in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon situated east of the Litani River.

+The cradle of civilization is a term referring to locations identified as the sites of the emergence of civilization. In Western European and Middle Eastern cultures, it has frequently been applied to the Ancient Near Eastern Chalcolithic (Ubaid period,Naqada culture), especially in the Fertile Crescent (Levant and Mesopotamia), but also extended to sites in Armenia,[1] and the Persian Plateau. Other civilizations arose in Asia, among cultures situated along large river valleys, notably the Indus River in the Indian Subcontinent[2] and the Yellow River in China.[3] Civilizations also arose independently in EgyptNorte Chico in present-day Peru,[4] the Andes and in Mesoamerica. If writing is considered an indicator of civilization, the earliest "cradle" to have writing was Sumer (Jemdet Nasr).

+Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian speaking Semitic nation state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). It emerged as an independent state circa 1894 BC, the city of Babylonbeing its capital. It was often involved in rivalry with its fellow Akkadian state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia. Babylonia became the major power in the region after Hammurabi (fl. ca. 1792- 1752 BC middle chronology, or ca. 1696 – 1654 BC, short chronology) created an empire out of many of the territories of the former Akkadian Empire.

+The Zodiac Killer was a serial killer who operated in Northern California in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The killer's identity remains unknown. The Zodiac murdered victims in BeniciaVallejoLake Berryessa, and San Francisco between December 1968 and October 1969. Four men and three women between the ages of 16 and 29 were targeted. The killer originated the name "Zodiac" in a series of taunting letters sent to the local Bay Area press. These letters included four cryptograms (or ciphers). Of the four cryptograms sent, only one has been definitively solved.[1]

Background information

Also known as






Cause of death







Number of victims

5 confirmed dead, 2 injured (claimed to have killed 37)


United States


California, possibly also Nevada

Date apprehended



+The Shepherd of Hermas (Greek: Ποιμήν του Ερμά; Hebrewרועה הרמס‎; sometimes just called The Shepherd) is a Christian literary work of the 1st or 2nd century, considered a valuable book by many Christians, and considered canonical scripture by some of the early Church fathers such as Irenaeus.[1][2] The Shepherd had great authority in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.[3] It was bound with New Testament[1]in the Codex Sinaiticus, and it was listed between the Acts of the Apostles and the Acts of Paul in the stichometrical list of the Codex Claromontanus.

+Chaz Lamar Shepard (born October 16, 1977) is an American actor and singer-songwriter. Shepard is known for his regular role as John Hamilton on 7th Heaven and his recurring role as Trey Wiggs onThe Game. In addition, he starred as Curtis Taylor, Jr. in a 2009-10 national tour of the musical Dreamgirls.

+Nick Hysong (born December 9, 1971 in Winslow, Arizona) is an American athlete competing in the men's pole vault.

+Tawa (named after the Hopi word for the Puebloan sun god) is a genus of theropod dinosaur from the Late Triassic period.[1] The discovery is significant and suggests that the earliest dinosaurs arose in the ancient area of Gondwana that is now South America and spread from there.[2] The specific name honours Ruth Hall, founder of the Ghost Ranch Museum of Paleontology.

+The Maasai (sometimes spelled "Masai" or "Masaai") are a Nilotic ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. The Maasai are among the best known of African ethnic groups, due to their residence near the many game parks of East Africa, and their distinctive customs and dress.

+The Massaw of the Hopi People to them, is the Creator or Caretaker of Earth.

+A wormhole, also known as an Einstein-Rosen Bridge is a hypothetical topological feature of spacetime that would be, fundamentally, a "shortcut" through spacetime. For a simple visual explanation of a wormhole, consider spacetime visualized as a two-dimensional (2D) surface. If this surface is folded along a third dimension, it allows one to picture a wormhole "bridge". (Please note, though, that this is merely a visualization displayed to convey an essentially unvisualisable structure existing in 4 or more dimensions. The parts of the wormhole could be higher-dimensional analogues for the parts of the curved 2D surface; for example, instead of mouths which are circular holes in a 2D plane, a real wormhole's mouths could be spheres in 3D space.) A wormhole is, in theory, much like a tunnel with two ends each in separate points in spacetime.

+The Gleaves-class destroyers were a class of 66 destroyers of the United States Navy built 1938–1942, and designed by Gibbs & Cox.[1][2] The first ship of the class was the USS Gleaves(DD-423). The U.S. Navy customarily names a class of ships after the first ship of the class; hence the Gleaves class. They were the production destroyer of the US Navy when it entered World War II.

+Gleaves Whitney is the director of Grand Valley State University's Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies.

+Glial cells, sometimes called neuroglia or simply glia (Greek γλία, γλοία "glue"; pronounced in English as either /ˈɡlə/ or /ˈɡlə/), are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain, and for neurons in other parts of the nervous system such as in the autonomic nervous system.

+Ramanjaneyanagar is a locality belonging to the assembly constituency of Bangalore South (No 176) which is the biggest assembly constituency in Bangalore with 3,79,870 voters.

+Srinivasa Ramanujan FRS (About this sound pronunciation (help·info)) (Tamil: ஸ்ரீனிவாஸ ராமானுஜன்; 22 December 1887 – 26 April 1920) was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysisnumber theoryinfinite series, and continued fractions. Living in India with no access to the larger mathematical community, which was centred in Europe at the time, Ramanujan developed his own mathematical research in isolation. When Ramanujan “meditates”, he would see a hand drawing out equations, then he would memorize the equation and right it down. He recorded doing that.

+1729 is the natural number following 1728 and preceding 17301729 is known as the Ramanujan number after a famous Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan. Once a British mathematician G. H. Hardy was visiting to the hospital to see the great Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan. In Hardy's words:

+Australia entered World War II shortly after the invasion of Poland, declaring war on Germany on 3 September 1939. By the end of the war, almost a million Australians had served in the armed forces, whose military units fought primarily in the European theatreNorth African campaign, and the South West Pacific theatre.

+Number theory (or arithmetic[note 1]) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers. Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of objects made out of integers (e.g., rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (e.g., algebraic integers).

+In mathematics, a continued fraction is an expression obtained through an iterative process of representing a number as the sum of its integer part and the reciprocal of another number, then writing this other number as the sum of its integer part and another reciprocal, and so on.

+Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-directed learning that is related to but different from informal learning. In a sense, autodidacticism is "learning on your own" or "by yourself", and anautodidact is a self-teacher. Autodidacticism is a contemplative, absorptive procession.

+In analytical mathematicsEuler's identity (also known as Euler's equation), named for the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler, is the equality

e^{i \pi} + 1 = 0


e is Euler's number, the base of natural logarithms,

i is the imaginary unit, which satisfies i2 = −1, and

π is pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

+Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is an implementation of Microsoft's event-driven programming language Visual Basic 6 and its associated integrated development environment (IDE).

+An integrated development environment (IDE) or interactive development environment is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers forsoftware development. An IDE normally consists of a source code editorbuild automation tools and a debugger. Several modern IDEs integrate with Intelli-sense coding features.

+The Veterans Benevolent Association was an organization for LGBT veterans of the United States armed forces. The VBA was founded in New York City in 1945 by four honorably discharged gay veterans.

+The Virginia Bar Association (VBA) is a voluntary organization of lawyers in Virginia, with offices in Richmond, Virginia. It provides services to its members such as assistance in law office management, promotes or opposes selected state legislation, and publishes the quarterly VBA News Journal.

+The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) is "an organizational element of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs".

+VMware Infrastructure 3 (VI) is a suite of computer hardware virtualization products from VMware, Inc. (a division of EMC Corporation).

+A virtual machine (VM) is a software implemented abstraction of the underlying hardware, which is presented to the application layer of the system. Virtual machines may be based on specifications of a hypothetical computer or emulate thecomputer architecture and functions of a real world computer.



Multiples of bytes

SI decimal prefixes


IEC binary prefixes





kilobyte (kB)



kibibyte (KiB)


megabyte (MB)



mebibyte (MiB)


gigabyte (GB)



gibibyte (GiB)


terabyte (TB)



tebibyte (TiB)


petabyte (PB)



pebibyte (PiB)


exabyte (EB)



exbibyte (EiB)


zettabyte (ZB)



zebibyte (ZiB)


yottabyte (YB)



yobibyte (YiB)


See also: Multiples of bits · Orders of magnitude of data

Metric prefixes






English word[n 1]

Since[n 2]


















































































































































  1. ^ This table uses the short scale.
  2. ^ The metric system was introduced in 1795 with six prefixes. The other dates relate to recognition by a resolution of the CGPM.
















Base -illion
(short scale)


U.S., Canada and modern British
(short scale)

Traditional British
(long scale)

Traditional European (Peletier)
(long scale)













Thousand million














Thousand billion














Thousand trillion














Thousand quadrillion














Thousand quintillion














Thousand sextillion














Thousand septillion














Thousand octillion














Thousand nonillion














Thousand decillion














Thousand undecillion














Thousand duodecillion














Thousand tredecillion














Thousand quattuordecillion














Thousand quindecillion














Thousand sedecillion














Thousand septendecillion














Thousand octodecillion














Thousand novendecillion














Thousand vigintillion







Thousand quinquavigintillion







Thousand trigintillion







Thousand quinquatrigintillion







Thousand quadragintillion







Thousand quinquaquadragintillion







Thousand quinquagintillion














Thousand unquinquagintillion














Thousand quinquaquinquagintillion














Thousand sexagintillion














Thousand quinquasexagintillion







Thousand septuagintillion







Thousand quinquaseptuagintillion







Thousand octogintillion







Thousand quinquaoctogintillion







Thousand nonagintillion







Thousand quinquanonagintillion







Thousand centillion







Thousand quinquagintacentillion







Thousand ducentillion







Thousand quinquagintaducentillion







Thousand trecentillion







Thousand quinquagintatrecentillion







Thousand quadringentillion







Thousand quinquagintaquadringentillion







Thousand quingentillion





+Graham's number, named after Ronald Graham, is a large number that is an upper bound on the solution to a certain problem in Ramsey theory.

+Da Vinci would put a candle at the bottom of his bed when he mediates.

+Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid. The pure compound is colorless, but older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to the accumulation of oxides of nitrogen. Most commercially available nitric acid has a concentration of 68%. When the solution contains more than 86% HNO3, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid. Depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present, fuming nitric acid is further characterized as white fuming nitric acid or red fuming nitric acid, at concentrations above 95%. Nitric acid is also commonly used as a strong oxidizing agent.

+Mohenjo-daro (IPA[muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ]Urdu: موئن جودڑو‎, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, lit. Mound of the Dead; English pronunciation: /mˌhɛn. ˈdɑː.r/), is an archeological site in the province of Sindh,Pakistan. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient EgyptMesopotamia, and Crete. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE, and was not rediscovered until 1922. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.[1] However, the site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.

+The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) in the northwestern region[1] of the Indian subcontinent,[2][3] consisting mainly of what is now Pakistan, and parts of IndiaAfghanistan and Iran.[4] Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization[n 1] extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley[8] and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab;[9][10] it extended west to the Makran coast of Balochistan, north to northeastern Afghanistan and south to Daimabad in Maharashtra. The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.

+Mount Kailash (also Mount Kailas; (Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ,Sanskrit: कैलाश् Kangrinboqê or Gang Rinpochesimplified Chinese: 冈仁波齐峰, Gāngrénbōqí fēng) is a peak in the Kailas Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which are part of the Transhimalaya in Tibet. It lies near the source of some of the longest rivers in Asia: the Indus River, the Sutlej River (a major tributary of the Indus River), the Brahmaputra River, and the Karnali River (a tributary of the River Ganga). It is considered a sacred place in four religionsBönBuddhismHinduism and Jainism

+Ishi (ca. 1860 – March 25, 1916) was the last member of the Yahi, the last surviving group of the Yana people of the U.S. state of California. Widely acclaimed in his time as the "last wild Indian" in America, Ishi lived most of his life completely outside European American culture. At about 49 years of age, in 1911, he emerged from "the wild" near Oroville, California, leaving his ancestral homeland, present-day Tehama County, near the foothills of Lassen Peak, known to Ishi as Wa ganu p'a.

+In the photoelectric effectelectrons are emitted from solids, liquids or gases when they absorb energy from light. Electrons emitted in this manner may be called photoelectrons.[1][2] Heinrich Hertz in 1887 [2][3] discovered that electrodes illuminated with ultraviolet light create electric sparks more easily. In 1905 Albert Einstein published a paper that explained experimental data from the photoelectric effect as being the result of light energy being carried in discrete quantized packets. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921 for "his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".

+A photoelectric flame photometer is a device used in inorganic chemical analysis to determine the concentration of certain metal ions, among them sodiumpotassiumlithium, and calcium. Group 1 and Group 2 metals are quite sensitive to Flame Photometry due to their low excitation energies.

+Photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopyPEPICO for short, is a combination of photoionization mass spectrometry and photoelectron spectroscopy.[1] Gas phase sample, i.e. isolated molecules are ionized by incident vacuumultraviolet (VUV) radiation. In the ensuing photoionization, a cation and a photoelectron are formed for each sample molecule. The mass of the photoion is determined by time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whereas, in current setups, photoelectrons are typically velocity map imaged onto a position sensitive detector.

+A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator originating from the cyclotron in which the guiding magnetic field (bending the particles into a closed path) is time-dependent, being synchronized to a particle beam of increasing kinetic energy.

+A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the center along a spiral path. The particles are held to a spiral trajectory by a static magnetic field and accelerated by a rapidly varying (radio frequency) electric field.

+Coherent light is light in which all component electromagnetic waves are "in phase" with one another.

+Photoelectrochemical processes usually involve transforming light into other forms of energy.[1] These processes apply to photochemistry, optically pumped lasers, sensitized solar cells, luminescence, and the effect of reversible change of color upon exposure to light.

+Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799. The journal publishes original, peer-reviewed papers in the areas ofexperimentaltheoreticalapplied, and mathematical physics and related areas. The current editor-in-chief is Guido W. Fuchs.

+Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (often cited as just Liebigs Annalen) is one of the oldest and historically most important journals in the field of organic chemistry worldwide. Founded in 1832, it was edited by Justus von Liebig with Friedrich Wöhler until Liebig's death in 1873.

+The supernatural (Medieval Latinsupernātūrālissupra "above" + naturalis "nature", first used: 1520–30 AD)[1][2] is that which is not subject to the laws of nature, or more figuratively, that which is said to exist above and beyond nature.

+Neoplatonism (also called Neo-Platonism), is the modern (19th century) term for a school of mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists, with its earliest contributor believed to be Plotinus, and his teacher Ammonius Saccas.

+Plotinus (/plɒˈtnəs/Greek: Πλωτῖνος) (ca. 204/5–270 CE) was a major philosopher of the ancient world. In his system of theory there are the three principles: the One, the Intellect, and the Soul.[1] His teacher was Ammonius Saccas and he is of the Platonic tradition.

+Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world,[1] although the term is not easily defined.[2] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:[3]

+Socrates (pron.: /ˈsɒkrətz/Greek: Σωκράτης, Ancient Greek pronunciation: [sɔːkrátɛːs]Sōkrátēs; c. 469 BC – 399 BC)[1] was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders ofWestern philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporaryAristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.

+In mathematics, the nth taxicab number, typically denoted Ta(n) or Taxicab(n), is defined as the smallest number that can be expressed as a sum of two positive algebraic cubes in n distinct ways. The concept was first mentioned in 1657 byBernard Frénicle de Bessy, and was made famous in the early 20th century by a story involving Srinivasa Ramanujan

+The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII, pronunciation: /ˈæski/ ass-kee;[1]) is a character-encoding scheme originally based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computerscommunications equipment, and other devices that use text. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, though they support many additional characters.

+In theosophy and anthroposophy, the akashic records (from akasha, the Sanskrit word for 'sky' 'space' or 'aether') are a compendium of mystical knowledge supposedly encoded in a non-physical plane of existence. The akashic records – akasha is a Sanskrit word meaning "sky", "space" or "aether" – are described as containing all knowledge of human experience and all experiences as well as the history of the cosmos encoded or written in the very aether or fabric of all existence.

+A thought experiment or Gedankenexperiment (from German) considers some hypothesistheory,[1] or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences. Given the structure of the experiment, it may or may not be possible to actually perform it, and, in the case that it is possible for it to be performed, there need be no intention of any kind to actually perform the experiment in question. The common goal of a thought experiment is to explore the potential consequences of the principle in question.

+The Copenhagen interpretation is one of the earliest and most commonly taught interpretations of quantum mechanics.[1] It holds that quantum mechanics does not yield a description of an objective reality but deals only with probabilities of observing, or measuring, various aspects of energy quanta, entities that fit neither the classical idea of particles nor the classical idea of waves.

+The Stargate Project[1] was the umbrella code name of one of several sub-projects established by the U.S. Federal Government to investigate claims of psychic phenomena with potential military and domestic applications, particularly "remote viewing": the purported ability to psychically "see" events, sites, or information from a great distance.

+The parietal lobe is a part of the brain positioned above (superior to) the occipital lobe and behind (posterior to) the frontal lobe.

+The Cult of the Holy Spirit (PortugueseCulto do Divino Espírito Santo) is a religious sub-culture, inspired by Christian millenarian mystics, associated with Azorean Catholic identity, consisting of iconography, architecture, and religious practices that have continued in many communities of the archipelago as well as the broader Portuguese diaspora. Beyond the Azores, the Cult of the Holy Spirit is alive in parts of Brazil (where it was established three centuries ago) and pockets of Portuguese settlers in North America

+In physics, the Bekenstein bound is an upper limit on the entropy S, or information I, that can be contained within a given finite region of space which has a finite amount of energy—or conversely, the maximum amount of information required to perfectly describe a given physical system down to the quantum level.[1] It implies that the information of a physical system, or the information necessary to perfectly describe that system, must be finite if the region of space and the energy is finite. In computer science, this implies that there is a maximum information-processing rate (Bremermann's limit) for a physical system that has a finite size and energy, and that a Turing machine with finite physical dimensions and unbounded memory is not physically possible.

+Bremermann's Limit, named after Hans-Joachim Bremermann, is the maximum computational speed of a self-contained system in the material universe. It is derived from Einstein's mass-energy equivalency and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and is c2/h ≈ 1.36 × 1050 bits per second per kilogram. [1][2] This value is important when designing cryptographic algorithms, as it can be used to determine the minimum size of encryption keys or hash values required to create an algorithm that could never be cracked by a brute-force search.

+In computational complexity theory, a transcomputational problem is a problem that requires processing of more than 1093 bits of information.[1] Any number greater than 1093 is called a transcomputational number. The number 1093, called Bremermann's limit, is, according to Hans-Joachim Bremermann, the total number of bits processed by a hypothetical computer the size of the Earth within a time period equal to the estimated age of the Earth.[1][2] The term transcomputational was coined by Bremermann.

+In theoretical computer science, circuit complexity is a branch of computational complexity theory in which Boolean functions are classified according to the size or depth of Boolean circuits that compute them. One speaks of the circuit complexity of a Boolean circuit. A related notion is the circuit complexity of a recursive language that is decided by a family of circuits C_{1},C_{2},\ldots(see below).

+AC0 is a complexity class used in circuit complexity. It is the smallest class in the AC hierarchy, and consists of all families of circuits of depth O(1) and polynomial size, with unlimited-fanin AND gates and OR gates. (We allow NOT gates only at the inputs).[1] It thus contains NC0, which has only bounded-fanin AND and OR gates.

+In computational complexity theory, PSPACE is the set of all decision problems that can be solved by a Turing machine using a polynomial amount of space.

+When first introduced with Windows 3.1, the Windows registry's primary purpose was to store configuration information for COM-based components. With the introduction of Windows 95 and Windows NT, its use was extended to tidy up the profusion of per-program INI files that had previously been used to store configuration settings for Windows programs.[1][2] It is not a requirement for a Windows application to use the Windows Registry—for example, .Net Framework applications use XML files for configuration, while portable applications usually keep their configuration data within files in the directory/folder where the application executable resides.

+The INI file format is an informal standard for configuration files for some platforms or software. INI files are simple text files with a basic structure composed of "sections" and "properties (keys)".

+Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. It was a powerful high-level-language-based, processor-independent, multiprocessing, multiuser operating system with features comparable to Unix.

+IA-32 (Intel Architecture, 32-bit, sometimes called i386[1] through metonymy) is the title of the third generation of x86 architecture, first implemented in the Intel 80386 microprocessors in 1985. It was the first incarnation of x86 to support 32-bit computing.[2] As such, "IA-32" may be used as a metonym to refer to all x86 versions that supported 32-bit computing.

+The ARM architecture describes a family of RISC-based computer processors designed and licensed by British company ARM Holdings. It was first developed in the 1980s[2] by Acorn Computers Ltd to power their desktop machines and subsequently spun off as a separate company, now ARM Holdings. Globally as of 2013 it is the most widely used 32-bit instruction set architecture in terms of quantity produced.

+The Newton platform is a personal digital assistant developed by Apple Inc.. Development of the Newton platform started in 1987 and officially ended on February 27, 1998. Some electronic engineering and the manufacture of Apple's Newton devices was done by Motorola. Most Newton devices were based on the ARM 610 RISC processor and all featured handwriting recognition software. Most Newton devices were developed and marketed by Apple (this includes the whole MessagePad line and the eMate 300), but other companies — Motorola, Sharp, and Digital Ocean — also released devices that ran the Newton OS.

+The eMate 300 was a personal digital assistant designed, manufactured and sold by Apple to the education market as a low-cost laptop running the Newton operating system. The eMate was introduced March 7, 1997 for US$800 and was discontinued along with the Apple Newton product line and its operating system on February 27, 1998.

+Component Object Model (COM) is a binary-interface standard for software components introduced by Microsoft in 1993. It is used to enable interprocess communication and dynamic object creation in a large range of programming languages. COM is the basis for several other Microsoft technologies and frameworks, including OLE, OLE Automation, ActiveX, COM+, DCOM, the Windows shell, DirectX, and Windows Runtime.

+Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces (APIs) for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms. Originally, the names of these APIs all began with Direct, such as Direct3D, DirectDraw, DirectMusic, DirectPlay, DirectSound, and so forth. The name DirectX was coined as shorthand term for all of these APIs (the X standing in for the particular API names) and soon became the name of the collection.

+Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) is a technology developed by Microsoft that allows embedding and linking to documents and other objects. For developers, it brought OLE Control Extension (OCX), a way to develop and use custom user interface elements. On a technical level, an OLE object is any object that implements the IOleObject interface, possibly along with a wide range of other interfaces, depending on the object's needs.

+In IBM PC compatible computers, the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), also known as the system BIOS or ROM BIOS /ˈb.s/, is a de facto standard defining a firmware interface.[1] The name originated from the Basic Input Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975.[2][3] The BIOS software is built into the PC, and is the first software run by a PC when powered on. The fundamental purposes of the BIOS are to initialize and test the system hardware components, and to load a bootloader or an operating system from a mass memory device. The BIOS additionally provides abstraction layer for the hardware, i.e. a consistent way for application programs and operating systems to interact with the keyboard, display, and other input/output devices. Variations in the system hardware are hidden by the BIOS from programs that use BIOS services instead of directly accessing the hardware. Modern operating systems ignore the abstraction layer provided by the BIOS and access the hardware components directly. The BIOS of the original IBM PC/XT had no interactive user interface. Error messages were displayed on the screen, or coded series of sounds were generated to signal errors. Options on the PC and XT were set by switches and jumpers on the main board and on peripheral cards. Modern Wintel-compatible computers provide a setup routine, accessed at system power-up by a particular key sequence. The user can configure hardware options using the keyboard and video display. BIOS software is stored on a non-volatile ROM chip on the motherboard. It is specifically designed to work with each particular model of computer, interfacing with various devices that make up the complementary chipset of the system. In modern computer systems, the BIOS contents is stored on an EEPROM chip so that the contents can be rewritten without removing the chip from the motherboard. This allows BIOS software to be easily upgraded to add new features or fix bugs. MS-DOS (PC DOS), which was the dominant PC operating system from 1981 until the late 1990s[citation needed], relied on BIOS services for disk, keyboard, and text display functions. MS Windows NT, Linux, and other protected mode operating systems in general do not use it after loading.

+CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers[3]) was a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. Initially confined to single-tasking on 8-bit processors and no more than 64 kilobytes of memory, later versions of CP/M added multi-user variations, and were migrated to 16-bit processors.

+The S-100 bus or Altair bus, IEEE696-1983 (withdrawn), was an early computer bus designed in 1974 as a part of the Altair 8800, generally considered today to be the first personal computer (or at least the first microcomputer, as it was designed for hobbyists rather than the general public). The S-100 bus was the first industry standard expansion bus for the microcomputer industry. S-100 computers, consisting of processor and peripheral cards, were produced by a number of manufacturers.

+A system bus is a single computer bus that connects the major components of a computer system. The technique was developed to reduce costs and improve modularity. It combines the functions of a data bus to carry information, an address bus to determine where it should be sent, and a control bus to determine its operation. Although popular in the 1970s and 1980s, modern computers use a variety of separate buses adapted to more specific needs.

+In computer architecture, a bus is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components (wire, optical fiber, etc.) and software, including communication protocol.

+PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards. PCIe has numerous improvements over the aforementioned bus standards, including higher maximum system bus throughput, lower I/O pin count and smaller physical footprint, better performance-scaling for bus devices, a more detailed error detection and reporting mechanism (Advanced Error Reporting (AER) [1]), and native hot-plug functionality. More recent revisions of the PCIe standard support hardware I/O virtualization.

+CP/M-86 was a version of the CP/M operating system that Digital Research (DR) made for the Intel 8086 and Intel 8088. The commands are those of CP/M-80. Executable files used the relocatable .CMD file format (the same filename extension .CMD is used by Microsoft Windows for unrelated batch files). Digital Research also produced a multi-user multitasking operating system compatible with CP/M-86, MP/M-86, which later evolved into Concurrent CP/M-86.

+In DOS, OS/2, and also Microsoft Windows, batch file (BAT) is the name given to a type of script file, a text file containing a series of commands to be executed by the command interpreter.

+Command Prompt (executable name cmd.exe) is the Microsoft-supplied command-line interpreter on OS/2, Windows CE and on Windows NT-based operating systems (including Windows 2000, XP, Vista, 7, 8, Server 2003, Server 2008, Server 2008 R2 and Server 2012). It is the analog of COMMAND.COM in MS-DOS and Windows 9x systems (where it is called "MS-DOS Prompt"), or of the Unix shells used on Unix-like systems.

+COMMAND.COM is the filename of the default operating system shell for DOS operating systems and the default command line interpreter on Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows Me. It has an additional role as the first program run after boot, hence being responsible for setting up the system by running the AUTOEXEC.BAT configuration file, and being the ancestor of all processes. COMMAND.COM's successor on OS/2 and Windows NT-based operating systems is cmd.exe (Command Prompt). COMMAND.COM is also available on 32-bit versions of those systems to provide compatibility when running DOS applications within the NT Virtual DOS machine.

+In many computer operating systems, a COM file is a type of executable file; the name is derived from the file name extension .COM. Originally, the term stood for "Command file", a text file containing commands to be issued to the operating system (similar to a DOS batch file), on many of the Digital Equipment Corporation mini and mainframe operating systems going back to the 1970s.

+The domain name com is a top-level domain (TLD) in the Domain Name System of the Internet. Its name is derived from the word commercial,[1] indicating its original intended purpose for domains registered by commercial organizations. However, eventually the distinction was lost when .com, .org and .net were opened for unrestricted registration.

+The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is presently a department of ICANN, a nonprofit private US corporation, which oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and numbers.

+A DNS root zone is the top-level DNS zone in a hierarchical namespace using the Domain Name System (DNS) for computers. Most commonly it refers to the root zone of the largest global network, the Internet.

+The tz database, also called the zoneinfo database or IANA Time Zone Database, is a collaborative compilation of information about the world's time zones, primarily intended for use with computer programs and operating systems.[1] It is sometimes called the Olson database, referring to the founding contributor, Arthur David Olson.[2] Paul Eggert is currently its editor and maintainer.

+A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet.[1] The top-level domain names are installed in the root zone of the name space. For all domains in lower levels, it is the last part of the domain name, that is, the last label of a fully qualified domain name. For example, in the domain name, the top-level domain is com. Responsibility of management of most top-level domains is delegated to specific organizations by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), which operates the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and is in charge of maintaining the DNS root zone.

+Wintel is a portmanteau of Windows and Intel, referring to personal computers using Intel x86 compatible processors running Microsoft Windows.

+A portmanteau (Listeni/pɔrtˈmænt/, /ˌpɔrtmænˈt/; plural portmanteaux or portmanteaus) or portmanteau word is a combination of two (or more) words or morphemes, and their definitions, into one new word.[1][2] The English is derived from French portemanteau (portmanteau luggage which has two compartments). A portmanteau word fuses both the sounds and the meanings of its components, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog,[1][3] or the term "wurly" to describe hair that is both wavy and curly.[4] In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph which represents two or more morphemes.

+ROM (Rivers of MUD) is a MUD codebase derived from Merc, which is based on DikuMUD[1] and noted for its organization.[2] Russ "Alander" Taylor released Rom 2.3 in 1993.

+DikuMUD is a multiplayer text-based role-playing game, which is a type of MUD. It was written in 1990 and 1991 by Sebastian Hammer, Tom Madsen, Katja Nyboe, Michael Seifert, and Hans Henrik Staerfeldt at DIKU (Datalogisk Institut Københavns Universitet)—the department of computer science at the University of Copenhagen in Copenhagen, Denmark.

+In cryptography, a random oracle is an oracle (a theoretical black box) that responds to every unique query with a (truly) random response chosen uniformly from its output domain, except that for any specific query, it responds the same way every time it receives that query.

+The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of biological neurons.[1] The modern usage of the term often refers to artificial neural networks, which are composed of artificial neurons or nodes. Thus the term may refer to either biological neural networks, made up of real biological neurons, or artificial neural networks, for solving artificial intelligence problems.

+The term Von Neumann architecture, also known as the Von Neumann model or the Princeton architecture, derives from a 1945 computer architecture description by the mathematician and early computer scientist John von Neumann and others, First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC[1]. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and output mechanisms.[1][2] The meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus.

+ENIAC (/ˈini.æk/ or /ˈɛni.æk/; Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)[1][2] was the first electronic general-purpose computer. It was Turing-complete, digital, and capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems.

+Frances Elizabeth "Betty" Holberton (March 7, 1917 – December 8, 2001) was one of the six original programmers of ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer.

+In computer science, artificial intelligence, and mathematical optimization, a heuristic is a technique designed for solving a problem more quickly when classic methods are too slow, or for finding an approximate solution when classic methods fail to find any exact solution. This is achieved by trading optimality, completeness, accuracy, or precision for speed.

+A ROM cartridge, sometimes referred to simply as a cartridge or cart, is a removable enclosure containing read-only memory devices designed to be connected to a consumer electronics device such as a home computer or games console. ROM cartridges can be used to load software such as video games, or other application programs.

+The Neo Geo (ネオジオ Neo Jio?) is a cartridge-based arcade system board and home video game console released on January 31, 1990 by Japanese game company SNK Playmore. Being in the fourth generation of video game consoles, it was the first system in the Neo Geo family, which ran throughout the 1990s before being revived in December 2012 with the Neo Geo X handheld/home system.[1][2][3][4] The original system's hardware featured comparatively colourful 2D graphics.

+Zilog, Inc., previously known as ZiLOG (which stands for "Z (the last word in) integrated logic"),[1] is an American manufacturer of 8-bit and 16-bit microcontrollers, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series.

+Rupture of membranes (ROM) or amniorrhexis is a term used during pregnancy to describe a rupture of the amniotic sac.[1] Normally, it occurs spontaneously at full term either during or at the beginning of labor. Rupture of the membranes is known colloquially as "breaking the water." A premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a rupture of the amnion that occurs prior to the onset of labor.

+RFID on metal (abbreviated to ROM) refers to radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags which perform a specific function when attached to metal objects. The ROM tags overcome some of the problems traditional RFID tags suffer when near metal, such as detuning and reflecting of the RFID signal, which can cause poor tag read range, phantom reads, or no read signal at all.

+The Electronic Product Code (EPC) is designed as a universal identifier that provides a unique identity for every physical object anywhere in the world, for all time. Its structure is defined in the EPCglobal Tag Data Standard [1], which is an open standard freely available for download from the website of EPCglobal, Inc.. The canonical representation of an EPC is a URI, namely the 'pure-identity URI' representation that is intended for use when referring to a specific physical object in communications about EPCs among information systems and business application software. The EPCglobal Tag Data Standard also defines additional representations of an EPC identifier, such as the tag-encoding URI format and a compact binary format suitable for storing an EPC identifier efficiently within RFID tags (for which the low-cost passive RFID tags typically have limited memory capacity available for the EPC/UII memory bank).

+Macedonia (Listeni/ˌmæsɨˈdniə/ mas-i-DOH-nee-ə; Macedonian: Македонија, transliterated: Makedonija), officially the Republic of Macedonia (Република Македонија, transliterated: Republika Makedonija [rɛˈpublika makɛˈdɔnija] ( listen)), is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

+EEPROM (also written E2PROM and pronounced "e-e-prom," "double-e prom," "e-squared," or simply "e-prom") stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store small amounts of data that must be saved when power is removed, e.g., calibration tables or device configuration.

+The floating-gate MOSFET (FGMOS) is a field-effect transistor, whose structure is similar to a conventional MOSFET. The gate of the FGMOS is electrically isolated, creating a floating node in DC, and a number of secondary gates or inputs are deposited above the floating gate (FG) and are electrically isolated from it. These inputs are only capacitively connected to the FG. Since the FG is completely surrounded by highly resistive material, the charge contained in it remains unchanged for long periods of time. Usually Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and hot-carrier injection mechanisms are used to modify the amount of charge stored in the FG.

+In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device that converts a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage, or electric charge). An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverse operation. Signals are easily stored and transmitted in digital form, but a DAC is needed for the signal to be recognized by human senses or other non-digital systems.

+Overclocking is the process of making a computer or component operate faster than the clock frequency specified by the manufacturer by modifying system parameters (hence the name "overclocking"). Operating voltages may also be changed (increased), which can increase the speed at which operation remains stable. Most overclocking techniques increase power consumption, generating more heat, which must be dispersed if the chip is to remain operational.

+AMD released the third-generation Athlon, code-named "Palomino", on October 9, 2001 as the Athlon XP. The "XP" suffix is interpreted to mean extreme performance and also as an unofficial reference to Microsoft Windows XP.[16] The Athlon XP was marketed using a PR system, which compared its relative performance to an Athlon utilizing the earlier "Thunderbird" core. Athlon XP launched at speeds between 1.33 GHz (PR1500+) and 1.53 GHz (PR1800+), giving AMD the x86 performance lead with the 1800+ model. Less than a month later, it enhanced that lead with the release of the 1600 MHz 1900+,[17] and subsequent 1.67 GHz Athlon XP 2000+ in January 2002.

+A pin grid array, often abbreviated PGA, is a type of integrated circuit packaging. In a PGA, the package is square or roughly square, and the pins are arranged in a regular array on the underside of the package. The pins are commonly spaced 2.54 mm (0.1") apart, and may or may not cover the entire underside of the package.

+Through-hole technology, also spelled "thru-hole", refers to the mounting scheme used for electronic components that involves the use of leads on the components that are inserted into holes drilled in printed circuit boards (PCB) and soldered to pads on the opposite side either by manual assembly (hand placement) or by the use of automated insertion mount machines.

+A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. When the board has only copper tracks and features, and no circuit elements such as capacitors, resistors or active devices have been manufactured into the actual substrate of the board, it is more correctly referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board.

+Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of x86-compatible microprocessors designed and manufactured by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). The original Athlon (now called Athlon Classic) was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intel's competing processors for a significant period of time. The original Athlon also had the distinction of being the first desktop processor to reach speeds of one gigahertz (GHz).

+Athlon II is a family of AMD multi-core 45 nm central processing units, which is aimed at the budget to mid-range market and is a complementary product lineup to the Phenom II.

+Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. or AMD is an American multinational (fabless after GlobalFoundries was spun off in 2009) semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for commercial and consumer markets. Its main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations and personal computers, and embedded systems applications.

+An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.[1][2] It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.

+Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer storage device that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

+Random-access memory (RAM /ræm/) is a form of computer data storage. A random-access device allows stored data to be accessed directly in any random order. In contrast, other data storage media such as hard disks, CDs, DVDs and magnetic tape, as well as early primary memory types such as drum memory, read and write data only in a predetermined order, consecutively, because of mechanical design limitations. Therefore the time to access a given data location varies significantly depending on its physical location.

+Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random-access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. The capacitor can be either charged or discharged; these two states are taken to represent the two values of a bit, conventionally called 0 and 1. Since capacitors leak charge, the information eventually fades unless the capacitor charge is refreshed periodically. Because of this refresh requirement, it is a dynamic memory as opposed to SRAM and other static memory.

+The mebibit is a multiple of the bit, a unit of information, prefixed by the standards-based multiplier mebi (symbol Mi), a binary prefix meaning 220.

+In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (symbols: L, NA) is defined as the number of constituent particles (usually atoms or molecules) in one mole of a given substance. It has dimensions of reciprocal mol and its value is equal to 6.02214129(27)×1023 mol−1.[1][2][3] Changes in the SI units are proposed that will change the constant to exactly 6.02214X×1023 when it is expressed in the unit mol−1 (see New SI definitions, in which an "X" at the end of a number means one or more final digits yet to be agreed upon).

+The JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, formerly known as the Joint Electron Devices Engineering Council (JEDEC), is an independent semiconductor engineering trade organization and standardization body. Associated with the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA), a trade association that represents all areas of the electronics industry in the United States, JEDEC has over 300 members, including some of the world's largest computer companies.

+The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA, until 1997 Electronic Industries Association) was a standards and trade organization composed as an alliance of trade associations for electronics manufacturers in the United States. They developed standards to ensure the equipment of different manufacturers was compatible and interchangeable. The EIA ceased operations on February 11, 2011, but the former sectors continue to serve the constituencies of EIA.

+In human anatomy, the eardrum, or tympanic membrane, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear in humans and other tetrapods. Its function is to transmit sound from the air to the ossicles inside the middle ear, and then to the oval window in the fluid-filled cochlea. Hence, it ultimately converts and amplifies vibration in air to vibration in fluid. The malleus bone bridges the gap between the eardrum and the other ossicles.

+Steel Wheels is the 19th British and 21st American studio album by The Rolling Stones, released in 1989.

+Zytel is a trademark owned by DuPont and used for a number of different high strength, abrasion and impact resistant thermoplastic polyamide formulations of the family more commonly known as nylon, often with varying degrees of fiberglass, from 13% to 60%, added in for additional stiffness.[1] Some of the grades are homopolymer nylon66, other copolymers with nylon6 repeat units, and further grades involving rubber toughening are available. Many grades are based on polyphthalamide (PPA), another common polyamide.

+A Thermoplastic, also known as a thermosoftening plastic,[1][2] is a polymer that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature, and returns to a solid state upon cooling. Most thermoplastics have a high molecular weight, whose chains associate through intermolecular forces; this property allows thermoplastics to be remolded because the intermolecular interactions spontaneously reform upon cooling. In this way, thermoplastics differ from thermosetting polymers, which form irreversible chemical bonds during the curing process; thermoset bonds break down upon melting and do not reform upon cooling.

+Żytelkowo [ʐɨtɛlˈkɔvɔ] (formerly German Siedkow) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Białogard, within Białogard County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.[1] It lies approximately 6 kilometres (4 mi) east of Białogard and 117 km (73 mi) north-east of the regional capital Szczecin.

+Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII), the inner ear, or central processing centers of the brain. Sensorineural hearing loss can be mild, moderate, or severe, including total deafness.

+The vestibulocochlear nerve (auditory vestibular nerve)[1] is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain. The vestibulocochlear nerve is derived from the embryonic otic placode.

+The Opte Project is a project started by Barrett Lyon that seeks to make an accurate representation of the extent of the Internet using visual graphics.

+Barrett Gibson Lyon (born March 18, 1978) is an American Internet entrepreneur.

+An onomatopoeia (sometimes written as onomatopœia) (About this sound pronunciation (US) (help·info), from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία;[1] ὄνομα for "name"[2] and ποιέω for "I make",[3] adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates or suggests the source of the sound that it describes. Onomatopoeia (as an uncountable noun) refers to the property of such words. Common occurrences of onomatopoeias include animal noises such as "oink", "meow", "roar" or "chirp".

+An emoticon (/ɨˈmtɨkɒn/) is a metacommunicative pictorial representation of a facial expression which in the absence of body language and prosody serves to draw a receiver's attention to the tenor or temper of a sender's nominal verbal communication, changing and improving its interpretation. It expresses - usually by means of punctuation marks - a person's feelings or mood and can include numbers and letters, as well. In the most recent years, as the epidemic of social media and texting is at an all time high, emoticons have played a significant role in communication through technology. These emoticons offer another range of "tone" and feeling through texting that portrays specific emotions through facial gestures while in the midst of cyber communication.

+Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a protocol for live interactive Internet text messaging (chat) or synchronous conferencing.[1] It is mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels,[2] but also allows one-to-one communication via private message[3] as well as chat and data transfer,[4] including file sharing.

+Synchronous conferencing is the formal term used in computing, in particular in computer-mediated communication, collaboration and learning, to describe technologies informally known as online chat. It is sometimes extended to include audio/video conferencing or instant messaging systems that provide a text-based multi-user chat function. The word synchronous is used to qualify the conferencing as real-time, as distinct from a system such as e-mail, where messages are left and answered later.

+SILC (Secure Internet Live Conferencing protocol) is a protocol that provides secure synchronous conferencing services (very much like IRC) over the Internet.

+Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communications protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML (Extensible Markup Language).[1] The protocol was originally named Jabber,[2] and was developed by the Jabber open-source community in 1999 for near real-time, instant messaging (IM), presence information, and contact list maintenance. Designed to be extensible, the protocol has also been used for publish-subscribe systems, signalling for VoIP, video, file transfer, gaming, Internet of Things applications such as the smart grid, and social networking services.

+Leet (or "1337"), also known as eleet or leetspeak, is an alternative alphabet for the English language that is used primarily on the Internet. It uses various combinations of ASCII characters to replace Latinate letters. For example, leet spellings of the word leet include 1337 and l33t; eleet may be spelled 31337 or 3l33t.

+In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encoding by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a regular system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth. The receiver deciphers the text by performing an inverse substitution.

+Padonki (Russian: падонки) is a counter-culture within the Russian-speaking Internet most famous for using a distinctive slang, known as padonkaffsky jargon or, alternatively, as Olbanian. The singular of padonki is padonok (Russian: падонок), an intentional misspelling of podonok (Russian: подонок), which means riff-raff, scoundrel, or scum.

+Runet (portmanteau of ru (Russia's top-level domain) and net (common abbreviation of internet)) is a widely used[citation needed] term that pertains to Internet domains and websites, and has several terminological uses. The term "Runet" has been used by media, journalists and politicians.

+Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any communicative transaction that occurs through the use of two or more electronic devices.[1] While the term has traditionally referred to those communications that occur via computer-mediated formats (e.g., instant messaging, email, chat rooms), it has also been applied to other forms of text-based interaction such as text messaging.[2] Research on CMC focuses largely on the social effects of different computer-supported communication technologies. Many recent studies involve Internet-based social networking supported by social software.

+Padonkaffsky jargon (Russian: йазык падонкафф, jazyk padonkaff) or Olbanian (олбанский, olbanskiy) is a cant language developed by padonki of Runet. It started as an Internet slang language originally used in the Russian Internet community. It is comparable to the English language Leet. Padonkaffsky jargon became so popular, that President of Russia, Dmitry Medvedev jokingly suggested Olbanian should be taught in schools.

+Flaming, also known as bashing, is hostile and insulting interaction between Internet users, often involving the use of profanity.

+An Anglicism is a word borrowed from English into another language. "Anglicism" also, and more properly, describes English syntax, grammar, meaning, and structure used in another language with varying degrees of corruption. It can also refer to non-English words pronounced with English phonetics by English-speakers.

+The term Netizen is a portmanteau of the English words Internet and citizen. It is defined as an entity or person actively involved in online communities and a user of the Internet, especially an avid one.[1][2] The term can also imply an interest in improving the Internet, especially in regard to open access and free speech.[3] Netizens are also commonly referred to as cybercitizens, which has the same meaning.

+Kopi luwak (Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈkopi ˈlu.aʔ]), or civet coffee, refers to the beans of coffee berries once they have been eaten and excreted by the Asian Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus).[1] The name is also used for marketing brewed coffee made from those beans.

+William E. Hart (1843 – October 21, 1874) was a Union Army soldier during the American Civil War. He received the Medal of Honor for gallantry during the Valley Campaigns of 1864 & 1865. Hart was instrumental in the capture of Confederate cavalry raider Colonel Harry Gilmor on February 4, 1865.

+Russell Earl "Bucky" Dent (born Russell Earl O'Dey; November 25, 1951),[1] is a former American Major League Baseball player and manager. He earned two World Series rings as the starting shortstop for the New York Yankees in 1977 and 1978, and was voted the World Series MVP in 1978. Dent is most famous for his home run in a tie-breaker game against the Boston Red Sox at the end of the 1978 season.

+Steven Quincy Urkel, generally known as Steve Urkel or simply Urkel, is a fictional character on the ABC/CBS sitcom Family Matters, portrayed by Jaleel White.[1] Originally slated to have been a one-time only character on the show, he soon became its most popular character and main protagonist.

+Guy Stuart Ritchie (born 10 September 1968) is an English screenwriter, film director and producer, best known for directing Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels, Snatch, Swept Away, Revolver, RocknRolla, Sherlock Holmes and Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows.

+Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) is the United States' system for intercepting incoming warheads in space. It is a major component of the American missile defense strategy to counter ballistic missiles, including intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). GMD is administered by the U.S. Missile Defense Agency (MDA), while the operational control and execution is provided by the U.S. Army, and support functions are provided by the U.S. Air Force. Previously known as National Missile Defense (NMD), the name was changed in 2002 to differentiate it from other U.S. missile defense programs, such as space-based and sea-based intercept programs, or defense targeting the boost phase and reentry flight phases.[1] The program is projected to cost $40 billion by 2017.

+In enzymology, a GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (EC is an mannosyltransferase enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

GDP-mannose \rightleftharpoonsGDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose + H2O

Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, GDP-mannose, and two products, GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose and H2O.

+In computing, a hash table (also hash map) is a data structure used to implement an associative array, a structure that can map keys to values. A hash table uses a hash function to compute an index into an array of buckets or slots, from which the correct value can be found.

+In computer science, an associative array, map, symbol table, or dictionary is an abstract data type composed of a collection of key, value pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection.

+In computer science, an abstract data type (ADT) is a mathematical model for a certain class of data structures that have similar behavior; or for certain data types of one or more programming languages that have similar semantics. An abstract data type is defined indirectly, only by the operations that may be performed on it and by mathematical constraints on the effects (and possibly cost) of those operations

+Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that represents concepts as "objects" that have data fields (attributes that describe the object) and associated procedures known as methods. Objects, which are usually instances of classes, are used to interact with one another to design applications and computer programs.[1][2] Objective-C, Smalltalk, Java and C# are examples of object-oriented programming languages.

+Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. It is the main programming language used by Apple for the OS X and iOS operating systems and their respective APIs, Cocoa and Cocoa Touch.

+Clang /ˈklæŋ/[2] is a compiler front end for the C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ programming languages. It uses LLVM as its back end and has been part of its releases since LLVM 2.6.

+Brad Cox is a computer scientist and Ph.D. of mathematical biology known mostly for his work in software engineering (specifically software reuse), software componentry, and the Objective-C programming language.

+Code reuse, also called software reuse, is the use of existing software, or software knowledge, to build new software.

+The 12-bit PDP-8 was the first successful commercial minicomputer, produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the 1960s. DEC introduced it on 22 March 1965, and sold more than 50,000 systems, the most of any computer up to that date.[1] It was the first widely sold computer in the DEC PDP series of computers (the PDP-5 was not originally intended to be a general-purpose computer). The chief engineer who designed the initial version of the PDP-8 was Edson de Castro, who later founded Data General.

+The Intersil 6100 family consisted of a 12-bit microprocessor (the 6100) and a range of peripheral support and memory ICs developed in the mid-1970s. The microprocessor recognised the PDP-8 instruction set. As such it was sometimes referred to as the CMOS-PDP8. Since it was also produced by Harris Corporation, it was also known as the Harris HM-6100. The Intersil 6100 was introduced in the second quarter of 1975,[1][2] and the Harris version in 1976.[2] By virtue of its CMOS technology and associated benefits, the 6100 was being incorporated into some military designs until the early 1980s.

+DECmate was the name of a series of PDP-8-compatible computers produced by the Digital Equipment Corporation in the late 1970s and early 1980s. All of the models used an Intersil 6100 (later known as the Harris 6100) or Harris 6120 (an improved Intersil 6100) microprocessor which emulated the 12-bit DEC PDP-8 CPU. They were text-only and used the OS/78 or OS/278 operating systems, which were extensions of OS/8 for the PDP-8. Aimed for the word processing market, they typically ran the WPS-8 word-processing program.

+The SC Germania List is a German rugby union club from the district List of Hanover, currently playing in the Rugby-Bundesliga. Apart from rugby, the club also offers other sports like tennis, gymnastics and handball.

+Columbo is an American detective mystery television film series, starring Peter Falk as Columbo, a homicide detective with the Los Angeles Police Department.[2][3] The character and television show were created by William Link and Richard Levinson. The show popularized the inverted detective story format. Almost every episode began by showing the commission of the crime and its perpetrator. The series has no "whodunit" element. The plot mainly revolves around how the perpetrator, whose identity is already known to the audience, will finally be caught and exposed.

+A whodunit or whodunnit (for "Who [has] done it?") is a complex, plot-driven variety of the detective story in which the audience is given the opportunity to engage in the same process of deduction as the protagonist throughout the investigation of a crime. The reader or viewer is provided with the clues from which the identity of the perpetrator may be deduced before the story provides the revelation itself at its climax. The investigation is usually conducted by an eccentric amateur or semi-professional detective.

+Angus is historically a county (known officially as Forfarshire from the 18th century until 1928, when it reverted to its ancient name). It is a registration county and a lieutenancy area. In 1975 its administrative functions were transferred to the council district of the Tayside Region.

+Circinus is a small and faint constellation in the southern sky, first defined in 1756 by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille. Its name is Latin for compass, referring to the drafting tool used for drawing circles (it should not be confused with Pyxis, a constellation that represents a mariner's compass). Its brightest star is Alpha Circini, with an apparent magnitude of 3.19. Slightly variable, it is the brightest rapidly oscillating Ap star in the night sky. Theta and AX Circini are the most prominent variable stars in the constellation. Two sun-like stars have planetary systems: HD 134060 has two small planets, and HD 129445 has a Jupiter-like planet. Supernova SN 185 appeared in Circinus in 185 AD and was recorded by Chinese observers. Two novae were observed more recently, in the 20th century.

+Circumstantial speech (also referred to as circumstantiality) is a communication disorder in which the focus of a conversation drifts, but often comes back to the point.[1] In circumstantiality, unnecessary details and irrelevant remarks cause a delay in getting to the point.

+Tangential speech is a communication disorder in which the train of thought of the speaker wanders and shows a lack of focus, never returning to the initial topic of the conversation.[1] It is less severe than Logorrhea and may be associated with the middle stage in dementia.[1] It is, however, more severe than circumstantial speech in which the speaker wanders, but eventually returns to the topic.

+Ruth Gordon Jones (October 30, 1896 – August 28, 1985), better known as Ruth Gordon, was an American actress and writer.[1] She is perhaps best known for film roles she had while already in her 70s and 80s: Minnie Castevet, Rosemary's overly solicitous neighbor in Rosemary's Baby, the eccentric Maude in Harold and Maude, and Ma Boggs, the mother of Orville Boggs, in the Clint Eastwood film Every Which Way but Loose. In addition to her acting career, Gordon wrote numerous plays, film scripts and books, most notably co-writing the screenplay for the 1949 film Adam's Rib. Gordon won an Academy Award, an Emmy and two Golden Globe awards for her acting, as well as receiving three Academy Award nominations for her writing.

+George "Buddy" Guy (born July 30, 1936[1]) is an American blues guitarist and singer. Critically acclaimed, he is a pioneer of the Chicago blues sound and has served as an influence to some of the most notable musicians of his generation, including Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page, Jimi Hendrix and Stevie Ray Vaughan. In the 1960s Guy was a member of Muddy Waters' band and was a house guitarist at Chess Records. He can be heard on Howlin' Wolf's "Killing Floor" and Koko Taylor's "Wang Dang Doodle" as well as on his own Chess sides and the series of records he made with harmonica player Junior Wells.

+The zygomatic major is a muscle of the human body. It is a muscle of facial expression which draws the angle of the mouth superiorly and posteriorly (smile). Like all muscles of facial expression, the zygomatic major is innervated by the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve), more specifically, the buccal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve.

+The flux capacitor, which consists of a rectangular shaped compartment with three flashing Geissler style-tubes (arranged in a "Y" configuration), is described by Doc as "what makes time travel possible." The device is the core component of the time machine.

+Pon farr /ˌpɒn ˈfɑr/ is a phenomenon in the fictional Star Trek universe. A part of the reproductive cycle of Vulcans, pon farr features in the canonical TV series as well as in fan fiction.

+Punctuated equilibrium (also called punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that most species will exhibit little net evolutionary change for most of their geological history, remaining in an extended state called stasis. When significant evolutionary change occurs, the theory proposes that it is generally restricted to rare and rapid (on a geologic time scale) events of branching speciation called cladogenesis. Cladogenesis is the process by which a species splits into two distinct species, rather than one species gradually transforming into another.

+Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904 – February 3, 2005)[1][2] was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists. He was also a renowned taxonomist, tropical explorer, ornithologist, and historian of science.[3] His work contributed to the conceptual revolution that led to the modern evolutionary synthesis of Mendelian genetics, systematics, and Darwinian evolution, and to the development of the biological species concept.

+Punctuated equilibrium in social theory is a method of understanding change in complex social systems. The method studies the evolution of policy change,[1] including the evolution of conflicts.[2] The theory suggests that most social systems exist in an extended period of stasis, which are later punctuated by sudden shifts in radical change. The theory was largely inspired from the biological theory of punctuated equilibrium developed by paleontologists Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould.

+An Enigma machine was any of a family of related electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines used for the encryption and decryption of secret messages. Enigma was invented by the German engineer Arthur Scherbius at the end of World War I.[1] The early models were used commercially from the early 1920s, and adopted by military and government services of several countries — most notably by Nazi Germany before and during World War II.[2] Several different Enigma models were produced, but the German military models are the ones most commonly discussed.

+Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/ TEWR-ing; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954), was a British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, giving a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer.[2][3][4] Turing is widely considered to be the father of computer science and artificial intelligence.

+Rudimentary Peni are a British anarcho-punk/deathrock band formed in 1980.

+Cutaneous meningioma (also known as "Heterotopic meningeal tissue,"[1] and "Rudimentary meningocele"[1]) is a developmental defect, and results from the presence of meningocytes outside the calvarium.

+The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptical orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, and greater than 1 is a hyperbola. The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every Kepler orbit is a conic section. It is normally used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a rosette orbit through the galaxy.

+In mathematics, the eccentricity, denoted e or \varepsilon, is a parameter associated with every conic section. It can be thought of as a measure of how much the conic section deviates from being circular.

+In popular usage, eccentricity (also called quirkiness or kookiness) refers to unusual or odd behavior on the part of an individual. This behavior would typically be perceived as unusual or unnecessary, without being demonstrably maladaptive. Eccentricity is contrasted with "normal" behavior, the nearly universal means by which individuals in society solve given problems and pursue certain priorities in everyday life. People who consistently display benignly eccentric behavior are labeled as "eccentrics".

+Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter (RAMDAC) is a combination of three fast DACs with a small SRAM used in computer graphics display adapters to store the color palette and to generate the analog signals (usually a voltage amplitude) to drive a color monitor. The logical color number from the display memory is fed into the address inputs of the SRAM to select a palette entry to appear on the data output of the SRAM. This entry is composed of three separate values corresponding to the three components (red, green, and blue) of the desired physical color. Each component value is fed to a separate DAC, whose analog output goes to the monitor, and ultimately to one of its three electron guns (or equivalent in non-CRT displays).

+In computer graphics, a palette is either a given, finite set of colors for the management of digital images (that is, a color palette), or a small on-screen graphical element for choosing from a limited set of choices, not necessarily colors (such as a tools palette).

+An electron gun (also called electron emitter) is an electrical component in some vacuum tubes that produces a narrow, collimated electron beam that has a precise kinetic energy. The largest use is in cathode ray tubes (CRTs), used in older television sets, computer displays, and oscilloscopes. They are also used in microwave linear beam vacuum tubes such as klystrons, inductive output tubes, travelling wave tubes, and gyrotrons, as well as in scientific instruments such as electron microscopes and particle accelerators.

+A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube, invented in 1937 by American electrical engineers Russel and Sigurd Varian, which is used as an amplifier for high frequencies, from UHF radio frequencies up into the microwave range. Low-power klystrons are used as local oscillators in superheterodyne radar receivers, while high-power klystrons are used as output tubes in UHF television transmitters, microwave relay, satellite communication, and radar transmitters, and to generate the drive power for modern particle accelerators.

+The inductive output tube (IOT) or klystrode is a variety of high frequency transmitting linear-beam vacuum tube, similar to a klystron, which evolved in the 1980s to meet increasing efficiency requirements for high-power RF amplifiers.[1] The primary commercial use of IOTs is in UHF television transmitters,[2] where they have mostly replaced klystrons because of their higher efficiencies (35% to 40%) and smaller size. IOTs are also used in particle accelerators. They are capable of producing power output up to about 30 kW continuous and 7 MW pulsed and gains of 20 - 23 dB at frequencies up to about a gigahertz.

+A Gyrotron is a high powered vacuum tube which generates millimeter-wave electromagnetic waves by bunching electrons with cyclotron motion in a strong magnetic field. Output frequencies range from about 20 to 250 GHz, covering wavelengths from microwave to the edge of the terahertz gap. Typical output powers range from tens of kilowatts to 1-2 megawatts. Gyrotrons can be designed for pulsed or continuous operation.

+Electron cyclotron resonance is a phenomenon observed in plasma physics, condensed matter physics, and accelerator physics. An electron in a static and uniform magnetic field will move in a circle due to the Lorentz force. The circular motion may be superimposed with a uniform axial motion, resulting in a helix, or with a uniform motion perpendicular to the field, e.g., in the presence of an electrical or gravitational field, resulting in a cycloid.

+In physics, angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate. Angular frequency (or angular speed) is the magnitude of the vector quantity angular velocity. The term angular frequency vector \vec{\omega}is sometimes used as a synonym for the vector quantity angular velocity.

+Omega (capital: Ω, lowercase: ω; Greek Ωμέγα) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet. In the Greek numeric system, it has a value of 800. The word literally means "great O" (ō mega, mega meaning 'great'), as opposed to omicron, which means "little O" (o mikron, micron meaning "little").[1] This name is Byzantine; in Classical Greek, the letter was called ō (ὦ), whereas the omicron was called ou (οὖ).

+The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field. The first form of magnetron tube, the split-anode magnetron, was invented by Albert Hull in 1920, but it wasn't capable of high frequencies and was little used. The modern 'resonant' cavity magnetron tube was invented by John Randall and Harry Boot in 1940 at the University of Birmingham, England.

+A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the center along a spiral path. The particles are held to a spiral trajectory by a static magnetic field and accelerated by a rapidly varying (radio frequency) electric field.

+Fusion power is the power generated by nuclear fusion processes. In fusion reactions, two light atomic nuclei fuse to form a heavier nucleus (in contrast with fission power). In doing so they release a comparatively large amount of energy arising from the binding energy due to the strong nuclear force which is manifested as an increase in temperature of the reactants. Fusion power is a primary area of research in plasma physics.

+A tokamak is a device using a magnetic field to confine a plasma in the shape of a torus. Achieving a stable plasma equilibrium requires magnetic field lines that move around the torus in a helical shape. Such a helical field can be generated by adding a toroidal field (traveling around the torus in circles) and a poloidal field (traveling in circles orthogonal to the toroidal field). In a tokamak, the toroidal field is produced by electromagnets that surround the torus, and the poloidal field is the result of a toroidal electric current that flows inside the plasma. This current is induced inside the plasma with a second set of electromagnets.

+In physics, terahertz radiation, also called submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, terahertz light, T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux, or THz, consists of electromagnetic waves at frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz (THz). The term applies to electromagnetic radiation with frequencies between the high-frequency edge of the millimeter wave band, 300 gigahertz (3×1011 Hz), and the low frequency edge of the far-infrared light band, 3000 GHz (3×1012 Hz). Corresponding wavelengths of radiation in this band range from 1 mm to 0.1 mm (or 100 μm).

+Far infrared (FIR) is a region in the infrared spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. Far infrared is often defined as any radiation with a wavelength of 15 micrometers (µm) to 1 mm (corresponding to a range of about 20 THz to 300 GHz), which places far infrared radiation within the CIE IR-B and IR-C bands.[1] Different sources use different boundaries for the far infrared spectrum; for example, astronomers sometimes define far infrared as wavelengths between 25 µm and 350 µm.

+The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l'éclairage) is the international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces. It was established in 1913 as a successor to the Commission Internationale de Photométrie and is today based in Vienna, Austria.

+In the study of color perception, the CIE 1931 RGB and CIE 1931 XYZ color spaces are the first mathematically defined color spaces. It was created by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1931.

+Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread slowly as it propagates. The word is related to "collinear" and implies light that does not disperse with distance (ideally), or that will disperse minimally (in reality). A perfectly collimated beam with no divergence cannot be created due to diffraction, but light can be approximately collimated by a number of processes, for instance by means of a collimator. Collimated light is sometimes said to be focused at infinity. Thus as the distance from a point source increases, the spherical wavefronts become flatter and closer to plane waves, which are perfectly collimated.

+In the physics of wave propagation, a plane wave (also spelled planewave) is a constant-frequency wave whose wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) are infinite parallel planes of constant peak-to-peak amplitude normal to the phase velocity vector.

+Polydactyly or polydactylism (from Greek πολύς (polys) "many" + δάκτυλος (daktylos) "finger"), also known as hyperdactyly, is a congenital physical anomaly in humans, dogs, and cats having supernumerary fingers or toes.[1] Polydactyly is the opposite of oligodactyly (fewer fingers or toes).

+The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It is named after the function sine, of which it is the graph. It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields.

+Transition-minimized differential signaling (TMDS) is a technology for transmitting high-speed serial data and is used by the DVI[1] and HDMI video interfaces, as well as other digital communication interfaces.

+In telecommunications, 8b/10b is a line code that maps 8-bit symbols to 10-bit symbols to achieve DC-balance and bounded disparity, and yet provide enough state changes to allow reasonable clock recovery. This means that the difference between the count of 1s and 0s in a string of at least 20 bits is no more than 2, and that there are not more than five 1s or 0s in a row. This helps to reduce the demand for the lower bandwidth limit of the channel necessary to transfer the signal.

+Kornelis Antonie (Kees) Schouhamer Immink (born 18 December 1946 in Rotterdam) is a Dutch scientist, inventor, and entrepreneur, who pioneered and advanced the era of digital audio, video, and data recording, including popular digital media such as Compact Disc, DVD and Blu-ray Disc.[1] He has been a prolific and influential engineer, who holds more than 1100 US and international patents.[2] The impact of his work on consumer electronics is so large that it is virtually impossible to enjoy digital audio or video that does not reflect his work.[3] His contributions to coding systems jump started the digital video and audio revolution, by enabling reliable data storage at information densities previously thought unattainable.[

+PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards. PCIe has numerous improvements over the aforementioned bus standards, including higher maximum system bus throughput, lower I/O pin count and smaller physical footprint, better performance-scaling for bus devices, a more detailed error detection and reporting mechanism (Advanced Error Reporting (AER) [1]), and native hot-plug functionality. More recent revisions of the PCIe standard support hardware I/O virtualization.

+Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. or AMD is an American multinational (fabless after GlobalFoundries was spun off in 2009) semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for commercial and consumer markets. Its main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations and personal computers, and embedded systems applications.

+AMD Catalyst (formerly named ATI Catalyst) is a device driver and utility software package for ATI line of video cards. It runs on Microsoft Windows and Linux, on 32- and 64-bit x86 processors.

+Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS,[1] both of which were updated in subsequent versions. This includes all versions of Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Me.

+Sandy Bridge is the codename for a microarchitecture developed by Intel beginning in 2005 for central processing units in computers to replace the Nehalem microarchitecture. Intel demonstrated a Sandy Bridge processor in 2009, and released first products based on the architecture in January 2011 under the Core brand.

+"Tick-Tock" is a model adopted by chip manufacturer Intel Corporation since 2007 to follow every microarchitectural change with a die shrink of the process technology. Every "tick" is a shrinking of process technology of the previous microarchitecture and every "tock" is a new microarchitecture.[1] Every year, there is expected to be one tick or tock.

+Sandy Bridge-E[1] is the codename of an eight-core Intel processor based on the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture. It follows the six-core Gulftown/Westmere-EP processor that used the older LGA 1366 package, which is replaced with LGA 2011 starting with Sandy Bridge-EP. The CPUID extended model number is 45 (2Dh) and four product codes are used, 80619 for the UP Core i7 models and the higher numbers for the various Xeon E5 DP server models. Two versions of the die exist, with four or eight cores, respectively. Out of those, some cores may be disabled, which is used for products that are sold with two or six cores visible to the user.

+The Xeon /ˈzɒn/ is a brand of multiprocessing- or multi-socket-capable x86 microprocessors from Intel Corporation targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets.

+Tama Drums (stylized as TAMA) is a brand of drums and hardware manufactured and marketed by the Japanese musical instrument company, Hoshino Gakki. Tama's research and development of products, along with production of its professional drums, is done in Seto, Japan,[1] while its hardware and more affordable drums are manufactured in Guangzhou, China.[2] Hoshino has several offices around the world for marketing and wholesale distribution. Drums destined for the U.S. market are assembled and stocked at Hoshino (U.S.A.) in Bensalem, Pennsylvania. The U.S. subsidiary also contributes to Tama's market research and development.

+Ibanez (アイバニーズ Aibanīzu?) is a Japanese guitar brand owned by Hoshino Gakki. Based in Nagoya, Aichi, Japan, Hoshino Gakki were one of the first Japanese musical instrument companies to gain a significant foothold in import guitar sales in the United States and Europe, as well as the first brand of guitars to mass-produce the seven-string guitar and eight-string guitar.

+Acer Aspire One is a diverse line of netbooks released in July 2008 by Acer Inc.

+The Colombo crime family is the youngest of the "Five Families" that dominates organized crime activities in New York City, United States, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra).

+The Gambino crime family is one of the "Five Families" that dominates organized crime activities in New York City, United States, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). The group is named after Carlo Gambino, boss of the family at the time of the McClellan hearings in 1963, when the structure of organized crime first gained public attention. The group's operations extend from New York and the eastern seaboard to California. Its illicit activities include labor and construction racketeering, gambling, loansharking, extortion, money laundering, prostitution,[3] fraud, hijacking, pier thefts, and fencing.

+Albert Anastasia (pronounced ah-nah-STAH-zee-ah) (born Umberto Anastasio, September 26, 1902 – October 25, 1957) was one of the most ruthless and feared Cosa Nostra mobsters in U. S. history. A founder of the American Mafia, Anastasia ran Murder, Inc. during the prewar era and was boss of the modern Gambino crime family during most of the 1950s.

+The Bonanno crime family is one of the "Five Families" that dominates organized crime activities in New York City, United States, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra).

+The Five Families are the five original Italian American Mafia crime families of New York City which have dominated organized crime in the United States since 1931. The families are: Lucchese, Bonanno, Gambino, Genovese, and Colombo.

+The Lucchese crime family (pronounced [lukˈkeːse]) is one of the "Five Families" that dominates organized crime activities in New York City, United States, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra).

+The Genovese crime family is one of the "Five Families" that dominate organized crime activities in New York City as part of the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). The Genovese crime family has been nicknamed the "Ivy League" and "Rolls Royce" of organized crime. They are rivaled in size only by the Gambino crime family and are unmatched in terms of power. They have generally maintained a varying degree of influence over many of the smaller mob families outside of New York, including ties with the Patriarca, Buffalo and Philadelphia crime families.

+Vincent Louis Gigante (/ɨˈɡænt/; March 29, 1928 – December 19, 2005), also known as "Chin," was a New York Italian-American mobster in the American Mafia who was boss of the Genovese crime family from 1981 to 2005. Gigante started out as a professional boxer who fought 25 bouts between 1944 and 1947. He then started working as a Mafia enforcer for what was then the Luciano crime family. Cousin of Jennifer Caruso from Legend Securities, Gigante was one of five brothers: himself, Mario, Pasquale and Ralph, all became mobsters in the Genovese family. Only one brother, Louis, stayed out of the crime family, instead becoming a priest.[1] Gigante was the shooter in the failed assassination of Frank Costello in 1957. After sharing a prison cell with Boss Vito Genovese following his conviction for heroin trafficking, Gigante became a caporegime, overseeing his own crew of Genovese soldiers and associates that operated out of Greenwich Village.

+Joseph Anthony Califano, Jr. (born May 15, 1931) is a former United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and founder and former chairman of The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASAColumbia), an evidence-based research organization. He is one of two living former Secretaries of Health, Education, and Welfare (the other is his predecessor, Forrest David Mathews).

+Joseph Anthony "Joe" Colombo, Sr. (June 16, 1923 – May 22, 1978) was the boss of the Colombo crime family, one of the "Five Families" of the Cosa Nostra in New York.

+Vincenzo "Vinny" Aloi (born September 22, 1933) is a New York City mobster involved in stock fraud who briefly served as the acting boss of the Colombo crime family.

+Forty years ago mob boss Joe Colombo was shot during a June 28, 1971 rally for the Italian American Civil Rights League at Columbus Circle, and many theories abound on the motivation for the hit all of which are exhaustively considered by J. R. de Szigethy for Rick Porrello's American Mafia website.  Colombo was shot by Jerome Johnson, a black mobster wannabe, and among the theories explored by de Szigethye is that he was recruited for the job by Gambino gay bar operator and child pornographer Mike Umbers.  Indeed, both Carlo Gambino and Mike Umbers were among the cast of characters questioned by the NYPD after the hit.  However, the investigation was little more than perfunctory, and the Colombo murder is officially considered by law enforcement as nothing more than the act of a lone madman.  Of course, Johnson isn't spilling any secrets:  he was shot and killed at the assassination scene by a man who remains unidentified to this day.

+Omertà[1] (/ɵˈmɛərtə/; Italian pronunciation: [omerˈta]) is a popular cultural attitude and code of honour that places heavy importance on a deep-rooted "code of silence", non-cooperation with authorities, and non-interference in the illegal (and legal) actions of others. It originated and remains very common in Corsica and Southern Italy where Mafia-type criminal organizations such as the Cosa Nostra, 'Ndrangheta, Sacra Corona Unita, and Camorra are strong. It also exists to a lesser extent in certain Italian-American neighborhoods where the Italian-American Mafia has influence and other Italian ethnic enclaves in countries such as Germany, Canada, and Australia, where Italian organized crime exists.

+In particle physics and physical cosmology, the Planck scale (named after Max Planck) is an energy scale around 1.22 × 1019 GeV (which corresponds by the mass–energy equivalence to the Planck mass 2.17645 × 10−8 kg) at which quantum effects of gravity become strong. At this scale, present descriptions and theories of sub-atomic particle interactions in terms of quantum field theory break down and become inadequate, due to the impact of the apparent non-renormalizability of gravity within current theories.

+Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory that attempts to describe the quantum properties of gravity. It is also a theory of quantum space and quantum time, because, as discovered with general relativity, the geometry of spacetime is a manifestation of gravity. LQG is an attempt to merge and adapt standard quantum mechanics and standard general relativity. The main output of the theory is a physical picture of space where space is granular. The granularity is a direct consequence of the quantization. It has the same nature of the granularity of the photons in the quantum theory of electromagnetism or the discrete levels of the energy of the atoms. But here, it is space itself which is discrete.

+In physics, a spin foam is a topological structure made out of two-dimensional faces that represents one of the configurations that must be summed to obtain a Feynman's path integral (functional integration) description of quantum gravity. It is closely related to loop quantum gravity.

+Noncommutative geometry (NCG) is a branch of mathematics concerned with a geometric approach to noncommutative algebras, and with the construction of spaces which are locally presented by noncommutative algebras of functions (possibly in some generalized sense). A noncommutative algebra is an associative algebra in which the multiplication is not commutative, that is, for which xy does not always equal yx; or more generally an algebraic structure in which one of the principal binary operations is not commutative; one also allows additional structures, e.g. topology or norm to be possibly carried by the noncommutative algebra of functions. The leading direction in noncommutative geometry has been laid by French mathematician Alain Connes since his involvement from about 1979.

+The causal sets programme is an approach to quantum gravity. Its founding principle is that spacetime is fundamentally discrete and that the spacetime events are related by a partial order. This partial order has the physical meaning of the causality relations between spacetime events.

+In mathematics, a bijection (or bijective function or one-to-one correspondence) is a function giving an exact pairing of the elements of two sets. Every element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and every element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set. There are no unpaired elements. In formal mathematical terms, a bijective function f: X → Y is a one to one and onto mapping of a set X to a set Y.

+Homography is a concept in the mathematical science of geometry. A homography is an invertible transformation from a projective space (for example, the real projective plane) to itself that maps straight lines to straight lines. Synonyms are collineation, projective transformation (sometimes linear projective transformation), and projectivity,[1] though "collineation" is also used more generally.

+In abstract algebra, an isomorphism[1] is a bijective homomorphism.[2] Two mathematical structures are said to be isomorphic if there is an one-to-one mapping of mathematical elements between them.

+In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism or topological isomorphism or bicontinuous function is a continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphisms in the category of topological spaces—that is, they are the mappings that preserve all the topological properties of a given space. Two spaces with a homeomorphism between them are called homeomorphic, and from a topological viewpoint they are the same. The word homeomorphism comes from the Greek words ὅμοιος (homoios) = similar and μορφή (morphē) = shape, form.

+In mathematics, a diffeomorphism is an isomorphism in the category of smooth manifolds. It is an invertible function that maps one differentiable manifold to another, such that both the function and its inverse are smooth.

+In mathematics, a permutation group is a group G whose elements are permutations of a given set M, and whose group operation is the composition of permutations in G (which are thought of as bijective functions from the set M to itself); the relationship is often written as (G,M). Note that the group of all permutations of a set is the symmetric group; the term permutation group is usually restricted to mean a subgroup of the symmetric group. The symmetric group of n elements is denoted by Sn; if M is any finite or infinite set, then the group of all permutations of M is often written as Sym(M).

+In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known simultaneously. For instance, the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa.[1] The original heuristic argument that such a limit should exist was given by Werner Heisenberg in 1927, after whom it is sometimes named the Heisenberg principle.

+Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, ForMemRS[3] (German: [vaɪl]; 9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher. Although much of his working life was spent in Zürich, Switzerland and then Princeton, he is associated with the University of Göttingen tradition of mathematics, represented by David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski. His research has had major significance for theoretical physics as well as purely mathematical disciplines including number theory. He was one of the most influential mathematicians of the twentieth century, and an important member of the Institute for Advanced Study during its early years.

+Retrocausality (also called retro-causation, retro-chronal causation, backward causation, and similar terms) is any of several hypothetical phenomena or processes that reverse causality, allowing an effect to occur before its cause. Retrocausality is primarily a thought experiment in philosophy of science based on elements of physics, addressing the question: Can the future affect the present, and can the present affect the past?[1] Philosophical considerations of time travel often address the same issues as retrocausality, as do treatments of the subject in fiction, although the two terms are not universally synonymous.[2] While some discussion of retrocausality is confined to fringe science or pseudoscience, a few physical theories with mainstream legitimacy have sometimes been interpreted as leading to retrocausality. This has been problematic in physics because the distinction between cause and effect is not made at the most fundamental level within the field of physics.

+John Milton Schealer (July 5, 1920 – February 11, 2008) was an American author of an elementary school astronomy textbook as well as numerous science fiction books for children.

+The Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States (Castillo San Felipe del Morro in San Juan, Puerto Rico is older). Located on the shore of Matanzas Bay in the city of St. Augustine, Florida, construction began in 1672, 107 years after the city's founding by Spanish Admiral and conquistador Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, when Florida was part of the Spanish Empire.

+The decline effect may occur when scientific claims receive decreasing support over time. The term was first described by parapsychologist Joseph Banks Rhine in the 1930s to describe the disappearing of extrasensory perception (ESP) of psychic experiments conducted by Rhine over the course of study or time. The term was once again used in a 2010 article by Jonah Lehrer published in The New Yorker.

+Extrasensory perception (ESP) involves reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses but sensed with the mind. The term was adopted by Duke University psychologist J. B. Rhine to denote psychic abilities such as telepathy, clairaudience, and clairvoyance, and their trans-temporal operation as precognition or retrocognition. ESP is also sometimes referred to as a sixth sense. The term implies acquisition of information by means external to the basic limiting assumptions of science, such as that organisms can only receive information from the past to the present.

+Charles Milles Manson (born November 12, 1934) is an American criminal and musician who led what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune that arose in California in the late 1960s.[1][2]:163–4, 313[3] He was found guilty of conspiracy to commit the murders of Sharon Tate and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca carried out by members of the group at his instruction. He was convicted of the murders through the joint-responsibility rule, which makes each member of a conspiracy guilty of crimes his fellow conspirators commit in furtherance of the conspiracy's objective.

+Lynn Nolan Ryan, Jr. (born on January 31, 1947), nicknamed "The Ryan Express", is a former Major League Baseball pitcher. He is currently principal owner and CEO of the Texas Rangers.

+John Edward McGee, Jr. (born October 19, 1969), known professionally as John Edward, is an American television personality and professional psychic medium. He is best known for his TV shows Crossing Over with John Edward and John Edward Cross Country.

+Marilyn vos Savant (/ˌvɒs səˈvɑːnt/; born August 11, 1946) is an American magazine columnist, author, lecturer, and playwright who rose to fame through her listing in the Guinness Book of World Records under "Highest IQ". Since 1986 she has written "Ask Marilyn", a Sunday column in Parade magazine in which she solves puzzles and answers questions from readers on a variety of subjects.

+William James Sidis (/ˈs dɪs/; April 1, 1898 – July 17, 1944) was an American child prodigy with exceptional mathematical and linguistic abilities. During his life, his ratio IQ was estimated to be between 250 and 300, making it one of the highest ever recorded; however, the testing was different from standard IQ tests.[1] He entered Harvard at age 11 and, as an adult, was claimed to be conversant in over forty languages and dialects. It was later acknowledged, however, that some of the claims made were exaggerations, with a researcher stating "I have been researching the veracity of primary sources of various subjects for about twenty-eight years, and never before have I found a topic so satiated with lies, myths, half-truths, exaggerations, and other forms of misinformation as is in the history behind William Sidis".[2] Sidis became famous first for his precocity and later for his eccentricity and withdrawal from public life. Eventually, he avoided mathematics altogether, writing on other subjects under a number of pseudonyms.

+An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" comes from the German term Intelligenz-Quotient, originally coined by psychologist William Stern. When current IQ tests are developed, the median raw score of the norming sample is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation (SD) up or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less, although this was not always so historically.[1] By this definition, approximately 95 percent of the population scores an IQ between 70 and 130, which is within two standard deviations of the median.

+The Flynn effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world from roughly 1930 to the present day. When intelligence quotient (IQ) tests are initially standardized using a sample of test-takers, by convention the average of the test results is set to 100 and their standard deviation is set to 15 or 16 IQ points. When IQ tests are revised, they are again standardized using a new sample of test-takers, usually born more recently than the first. Again, the average result is set to 100. However, when the new test subjects take the older tests, in almost every case their average scores are significantly above 100.

+Dumfries (Listeni/dʌmˈfrs/ dum-FREESS; possibly from Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Phris) is a market town and former royal burgh within the Dumfries and Galloway council area of Scotland. It is near the mouth of the River Nith into the Solway Firth. Dumfries was a civil parish and became the county town of the former county of Dumfriesshire.[2] Dumfries is nicknamed Queen of the South.[3] People from Dumfries are known colloquially as Doonhamers.

+Cthulhu[1] is a fictional cosmic entity who first appeared in the short story "The Call of Cthulhu", published in the pulp magazine Weird Tales in 1928. The character was created by writer H. P. Lovecraft.

+Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA)[4] is an American privately held organization dealing primarily in professional wrestling, with major revenue sources also coming from live events, product licensing, and direct product sales. Founded by its former President, Jeff Jarrett, and former CEO, Jerry Jarrett in 2002, it is currently the second largest professional wrestling promotion in America (after WWE), reaching over 1 million viewers in the U.S. and broadcasting its shows to more than 120 countries.

+TransAsia Airways (TNA, T: 復興航空, S:复兴航空, P: Fùxīng Hángkōng) is an airline based in Datong District, Taipei, Taiwan.[1][2][3] It mainly serves the domestic market but also has limited scheduled and charter international services to China, East Asia, and Southeast Asia destinations.

+Oxytocin (Oxt) /ˌɒksɨˈtsɪn/ is a mammalian neurohypophysial hormone that acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain.

+The Tamil National Alliance (Tamil: தமிழ்த் தேசியக் கூட்டமைப்பு ISO 15919: tamiḻt tēciyakkūṭṭamaippu) is a minority Sri Lankan Tamil political alliance in Sri Lanka. It was formed as an amalgamation of moderate Tamil parties as well as number of former rebel groups. It has participated in elections since 2001.

+Cortisol, known more formally as hydrocortisone (INN, USAN, BAN), is a steroid hormone, more specifically a glucocorticoid, produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex.[1] It is released in response to stress and a low level of blood glucocorticoids. Its primary functions are to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis; suppress the immune system; and aid in fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism.[2] It also decreases bone formation. Various synthetic forms of cortisol are used to treat a variety of diseases.

+Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin, is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus). Its principal effects are increased production and release of corticosteroids. Primary adrenal insufficiency, also called Addison's disease, occurs when adrenal gland production of cortisol is chronically deficient, resulting in chronically elevated ACTH levels; when a pituitary tumor is the cause of elevated ACTH (from the anterior pituitary) this is known as Cushing's Disease and the constellation of signs and symptoms of the excess cortisol (hypercortisolism) is known as Cushing's syndrome. A deficiency of ACTH is a cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency. ACTH is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms.

+The ACTH test (also called the cosyntropin test, tetracosactide test or Synacthen test) is a medical test usually ordered and interpreted by endocrinologists to assess the functioning of the adrenal glands stress response by measuring the adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).[1][2] ACTH is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) and aldosterone.

+Corticotropin-like intermediate [lobe] peptide (CLIP), also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone fragment 18-39 (ACTH(18-39)), is a naturally-occurring, endogenous neuropeptide with a docosapeptide structure and the amino acid sequence Arg-Pro-Val-Lys-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asn-Gly-Ala-Glu-Asp-Glu-Ser-Ala-Glu-Ala-Phe-Pro-Leu-Glu-Phe. CLIP is generated as a proteolyic cleavage product of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH),[1][2] which in turn is a cleavage product of proopiomelanocortin (POMC).[3] Although it does not appear to play any particularly important roles in the body,[4] it does have some biological activity,[5][6] especially of the neurological variety.

+Adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (ACTH deficiency) is a result of a decreased or absent production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary gland.[1] It can be associated with TBX19.

+T-box transcription factor TBX19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBX19 gene.

+Threose nucleic acid (TNA) is an artificial genetic polymer invented by Albert Eschenmoser. TNA has a backbone structure composed of repeating threose sugars linked together by phosphodiester bonds. Like DNA and RNA, TNA can store genetic information in strings of nucleotide sequences (G, A, C, and T). TNA is not known to occur naturally and is synthesized chemically in the laboratory under controlled conditions.

+Base pairs are the building blocks of the DNA double helix, and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is independent of its nucleotide sequence. The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a backup copy of all genetic information encoded within double-stranded DNA. The regular structure and data redundancy provided by the DNA double helix make DNA well suited to the storage of genetic information, while base-pairing between DNA and incoming nucleotides provide the mechanism through which DNA polymerase replicates DNA, and RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA. Many DNA-binding proteins can recognize specific base pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes.

+Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid. The chemical convention of naming carbon atoms in the nucleotide sugar-ring numerically gives rise to a 5′-end and a 3′-end (usually pronounced "five prime end" and "three prime end"). The relative positions of structures along a strand of nucleic acid, including genes and various protein binding sites, are usually noted as being either upstream (towards the 5′-end) or downstream (towards the 3′-end). (See also upstream and downstream.)

+The Alexander technique teaches people how to stop using unnecessary levels of muscular and mental tension during their everyday activities. It is an educational process rather than a relaxation technique or form of exercise. The Alexander technique has been shown to be helpful for back pain and Parkinson's.[1] There is insufficient evidence to determine if it has any effect in asthma.[2] Practictioners say such problems are often caused by people repeatedly mis-using their bodies over a long period of time, for example by standing or sitting with their weight unevenly distributed, holding their heads incorrectly, or walking or running inefficiently. The purpose of the Alexander technique is to help people unlearn bad physical habits and return to a balanced state of rest and poise in which the body is well-aligned.[3]

+Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (simplified Chinese: 广州话; traditional Chinese: 廣州話), is a language that originated in the vicinity of Canton (i.e., Guangzhou) in southern China, and is often regarded as the prestige dialect of Yue.

+Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is a species of bacteria part of the Human body normal flora.

+Staphylococcus phage G1 is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus Twortlikevirus.[

+Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coccus bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. Its type strain is LMG 22219T (=ON 86T=CCUG 49543T)[1] It is a potential pathogen for domestic animals.

+Staphylococcus (from the Greek: σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Under the microscope, they appear round (cocci), and form in grape-like clusters.

+A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that can be detected and that contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is generally scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer. Specimens can be observed in high vacuum, in low vacuum, and (in environmental SEM) in wet conditions.

+Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).[2] It is part of the skin flora of humans,[3] and its largest populations are usually found at the axillae, perineum, and inguinal areas.[4] S. haemolyticus also colonizes prosimians, monkeys, and domestic animals.[4] It is a well-known opportunistic pathogen, and is the second most frequently isolated CoNS (S. epidermidis is the first).[5] Infections can be localized or systemic, and are often associated with the insertion of medical devices.[6][7][8] The highly antibiotic resistant phenotype and ability to form biofilms make S. haemolyticus a difficult pathogen to treat.

+An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens, particularly opportunistic pathogens—those that take advantage of certain situations—such as bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan infections that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host, one with a healthy immune system. A compromised immune system, however, presents an "opportunity" for the pathogen to infect.

+The Fantastique is a French term for a literary and cinematic genre that overlaps with science fiction, horror and fantasy.

+The Landkreuzer P 1500 Monster was a German pre-prototype super-heavy artillery designed during World War II, representing the apex of the German extreme tank designs.

+The chupacabra or (Spanish pronunciation: [tʃupaˈkaβɾa], from chupar "to suck" and cabra "goat", literally "goat sucker") is a legendary cryptid rumored to inhabit parts of the Americas, with the first sightings reported in Puerto Rico.[1] The name comes from the animal's reported habit of attacking and drinking the blood of livestock, especially goats. Physical descriptions of the creature vary. It is purportedly a heavy creature, the size of a small bear, with a row of spines reaching from the neck to the base of the tail. Eyewitness sightings have been claimed as early as 1995 in Puerto Rico, and have since been reported as far north as Maine, and as far south as Chile, and even being spotted outside the Americas in countries like Russia and The Philippines, but many of the reports have been disregarded as uncorroborated or lacking evidence. Sightings in northern Mexico and the southern United States have been verified as canids afflicted by mange.[2] Biologists and wildlife management officials view the chupacabra as an contemporary legend.[3]

+Vagabond is a yacht specifically designed to sail in icy waters. In 2001, she was the first boat to go through the North-East passage without wintering. In 2002, she came back to France via the North-west Passage, completing the first circumnavigation around the Arctic ocean. Vagabond now serves as a logistic support for scientific expeditions in the Arctic.

+Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, or diagonally (i.e. both vertically and horizontally) in relation to each other.[1] It is usually the result of impaired function of the extraocular muscles (EOMs), where both eyes are still functional but they cannot converge to target the desired object.[1] Problems with EOMs may be due to mechanical problems, disorders of the neuromuscular junction, disorders of the cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) that stimulate the muscles, and occasionally disorders involving the supranuclear oculomotor pathways or ingestion of toxins.

Diplopia has a diverse range of ophthalmologic, infectious, autoimmune, neurological, and neoplastic causes.

Damage to the third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves, which control eye movements.





Multiple sclerosis

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics[6]


Guillain-Barré syndrome

Brain tumor



Wernicke's syndrome

Graves disease


Orbital myositis

Myasthenia gravis[7]




Lyme Disease

+Eye care professionals use prism correction as a component of some eyeglass prescriptions. A lens with prism correction displaces the image, which is used to treat muscular imbalance or other conditions (see vergence dysfunction) that cause errors in eye orientation. Prism correction is measured in prism dioptres. A prescription that specifies prism correction will also specify the "base", which is the direction of displacement. Whether a patient needs this type of correction or not is determined by the Polatest (or Pola-Test: a test for the evaluation of binocular vision) elaborated by Dr Haase.

+Dr. John Greenwood (1760–1819) was George Washington's personal dentist and was responsible for designing Washington's famous dentures, which were not wood but carved from hippopotamus tusk. He invented the first known "dental foot engine" in 1790.

+Bozo the Clown is a clown character very popular in the United States, peaking in the 1960s as a result of widespread franchising in early television.

+Alan Wendell Livingston (October 15, 1917 – March 13, 2009), born Alan Wendell Levison, was an American businessman best known for his tenures at Capitol Records, first as a writer/producer best known for creating Bozo the Clown for a series of record-album and illustrative read-along children's book sets, then as the executive who signed The Beatles to Capitol in November 1963. In-between, as Vice-President in charge of Programming at NBC, in 1959 he oversaw the development and launch of the network's most successful television series, Bonanza.

+The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (also known as The Wharton School) is the business school of the University of Pennsylvania, a private, Ivy League university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Wharton is the United States' oldest business school and the world’s first business school affiliated with an institution of higher learning. It was established in 1881 through a donation from Joseph Wharton.[2] The University of Pennsylvania, Wharton's parent institution, is among America's first universities, founded by statesman Benjamin Franklin. The school's faculty is the world’s most published and most cited among business schools.

+The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of ammonia with the chemical formula NH4NO3, is a white crystalline solid at room temperature and standard pressure. It is commonly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer, and it has also been used as an oxidizing agent in explosives, including improvised explosive devices. It is the main component of ANFO, a popular explosive, which accounts for 80% explosives used in North America. It is used in instant cold packs, as hydrating the salt is an endothermic process.

+Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.

+Veno Pilon (22 September 1896 – 23 September 1970) was a Slovene expressionist painter, graphic artist and photographer.

+Venø is a small Danish island located in Limfjorden in the north of Jutland, 3 km north of Struer. It is 7.5 km long and has a maximum width of 1.5 km. With an area of 6.5 km2, it has a population of 197 as of 1 January 2010.[1] Since 1958, there has been a ferry service from Venø Odde, the island's most southerly point, over the narrow sound to Kleppen. Venø's highest point, Forstov Bakke, is 27 meters above sea level and has cliffs to the west. The island is a popular holiday destination with good beaches and camping facilities. Venø By in the centre of the island has Denmark's smallest church as well as a small fishing harbour which is suitable for pleasure boats.

+Lambretta was a line of motor scooters originally manufactured in Milan, Italy by Innocenti. In 1972, the Indian government bought the Milanese factory and the rights to the Lambretta name, creating Scooters India Limited (SIL). Today, the Innocenti brand name rights are owned by Fiat whereas the oldest Lambretta and Lambro trademark registrations worldwide are owned by Lambretta Consortium.[1] Lambretta scooters were also manufactured under licence by Fenwick in France, NSU in Germany, Serveta in Spain, API in India, Yulon in Taiwan, Pasco in Brazil, Auteco in Colombia and Siambretta in Argentina.

+The Powers Girl, sometimes retitled Hello, Beautiful, is a 1943 musical comedy about women employed by John Robert Powers' modeling agency. Starring George Murphy, Anne Shirley, and Carole Landis, the film was directed by Norman Z. McLeod and based upon the book by John Robert Powers (played by Alan Mowbray in the film).

+William George Fargo (May 20, 1818 – August 3, 1881), pioneer American expressman, was born in Pompey, New York. From the age of thirteen he had to support himself, obtaining little schooling, and for several years he was a clerk in grocery stores in Syracuse.

+Pauline Musters (February 26, 1876 - March 1, 1895) at 23 inches (58 cm) tall, recognized by the Guinness Book of Records as the shortest woman ever recorded.

Born in Ossendrecht, Netherlands on February 26, 1876, she died in New York City at the age of 19 from a combination of pneumonia and meningitis. At the time of her death, she measured exactly 61 cm (24 in) tall.

+Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri[2] (Arabic: أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري‎  ʾAyman Muḥammad Rabīʿ aẓ-Ẓawāhirī, born 19 June 1951) is an Egyptian physician,[3] Islamic theologian and current leader of the militant Islamist organization al-Qaeda.[4] Ayman al-Zawahiri is a former member of Islamist organizations which have both orchestrated and carried out multiple attacks on the continents of North America, Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

+The social norms approach, or social norms marketing,[1] is an environmental strategy gaining ground in health campaigns.[2] While conducting research in the mid-1980s, two researchers, H.W. Perkins and A.D. Berkowitz,[3] reported that students at a small U.S. college held exaggerated beliefs about the normal frequency and consumption habits of other students with regard to alcohol. These inflated perceptions have been found in many educational institutions, with varying populations and locations.

+Social norms are group-held beliefs about how members should behave in a given context.[citation needed] Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern society’s behaviors,[1] while psychologists have adopted a more general definition, recognizing smaller group units, like a team or an office, may also endorse norms separate or in addition to cultural or societal expectations.[2] The psychological definition emphasizes social norms' behavioral component, stating norms have two dimensions: how much behavior is exhibited and how much the group approves of that behavior.

+In substance dependence and recreational drug use, drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous). This act is often colloquially referred to as "slamming", "shooting [up]", "banging", "pinning", or "jacking-up", often depending on the specific drug subculture in which the term is used (i.e. heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine).

+In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. By definition, when a medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%.

+Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.[1] Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains,[1] and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment.

+Bioaccumulation refers to the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other organic chemicals in an organism.[1] Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost. Thus, the longer the biological half-life of the substance the greater the risk of chronic poisoning, even if environmental levels of the toxin are not very high.[2] Bioaccumulation, for example in fish, can be predicted by models.[3] Biotransformation can strongly modify bioaccumulation of chemicals in an organism.

+The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first atomic bombs during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District; "Manhattan" gradually superseded the official codename, "Development of Substitute Materials", for the entire project.

+Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves, Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II. As the son of a United States Army chaplain, Groves lived at a number of Army posts during his childhood. He graduated fourth in his class at the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1918 and was commissioned into the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 1929, he went to Nicaragua as part of an expedition whose purpose was to conduct a survey for the Inter-Oceanic Nicaragua Canal. Following the 1931 Nicaragua earthquake, Groves took over responsibility for Managua's water supply system, for which he was awarded the Nicaraguan Presidential Medal of Merit. He attended the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1935 and 1936, and the Army War College in 1938 and 1939, after which he was posted to the War Department General Staff.

+A Wheatfield with Cypresses is any of three similar 1889 paintings by Vincent van Gogh. The National Gallery in London holds a September 1889 version. Another, painted in July of the same year, is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The third is held by a private collection. All were executed at the Saint-Rémy mental asylum near Arles, France; he was a patient there at that time. In a letter to his brother, Theo, Vincent described the painting: "I have a canvas of cypresses with some ears of wheat, some poppies, a blue sky like a piece of Scotch plaid; the former painted with a thick impasto ... and the wheat field in the sun, which represents the extreme heat, very thick too."

+Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch: [ˈvɪnsɛnt ˈʋɪləɱ vɑŋ ˈɣɔχ] ( listen);[note 1] 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter whose work, notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty and bold color, had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. After years of painful anxiety and frequent bouts of mental illness,[1][2] he died aged 37 from a gunshot wound, generally accepted to be self-inflicted (although no gun was ever found).[3][note 2] His work was then known to only a handful of people and appreciated by fewer still.

+The Hague (Dutch: Den Haag pronounced [dɛnˈɦaːx] ( listen); formally 's-Gravenhage pronounced [ˈsxraːvə(n)ˌɦaːɣə] ( listen)) is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population just over 500,000 inhabitants (as of 1 November 2012) and more than one million inhabitants including the suburbs, it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

+John Balance (first name also spelled Jhon and Jhonn; born Geoffrey (Geff) Laurence Burton, later taking his stepfather's surname of Rushton; 16 February 1962 – 13 November 2004), born in Mansfield, England,[1] founded the experimental music group Coil, in collaboration with his partner Peter 'Sleazy' Christopherson.[2][3] He was responsible for vocals, lyrics, chants, synthetics and various esoteric sound-making instruments and devices. Outside of Coil he collaborated with Nurse with Wound, Death in June, Psychic TV, Current 93, Chris & Cosey,[4] Thighpaulsandra and produced several Nine Inch Nails remixes.

+John Balliol (Norman French: Johan de Bailliol, Middle Scots: Jhon Ballioun;[1][2] c. 1249 – 25 November 1314), known as Toom Tabard (Scots for "empty coat"), was King of Scots from 1292 to 1296.

+John Baillie McIntosh (June 6, 1829 – June 29, 1888), although born in Florida, served as a Union Army brigadier general in the American Civil War. His brother, James M. McIntosh, served as a Confederate general until he was killed in the Battle of Pea Ridge.

+The Battle of Pea Ridge (also known as Elkhorn Tavern) was a land battle of the American Civil War, fought on March 6–8, 1862, at Pea Ridge in northwest Arkansas, near Garfield. Union forces led by Brig. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis moved south from central Missouri, driving Confederate forces into northwestern Arkansas. Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn reorganized the Confederate army and launched a counter-offensive, hoping that a victory would enable the Confederates to recapture northern Arkansas and Missouri. In a two–day battle, Curtis held off the Confederate attack on the first day and drove Van Dorn's force off the field on the second day. The outcome of the battle essentially cemented Union control of Missouri and northern Arkansas. The battle was one of the few during the war in which a Confederate army outnumbered its Union opponent.

+James McQueen McIntosh (1828 – March 7, 1862) was a career American soldier who served as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. Noted as an aggressive and popular leader of cavalry, he was killed in action at the Battle of Pea Ridge.

+Prudential Financial, Inc., also known by its primary subsidiary The Prudential Insurance Company of America, is a Fortune Global 500 and Fortune 500 company whose subsidiaries provide insurance, investment management, and other financial products and services to both retail and institutional customers throughout the United States and in over 30 other countries. Principal products and services provided include life insurance, annuities, mutual funds, pension- and retirement-related investments, administration and asset management, securities brokerage services, and commercial and residential real estate in many states of the U.S. It provides these products and services to individual and institutional customers through distribution networks in the financial services industry.

+In the UK, a Pupil Referral Unit (PRU) (Pupil Re-integration Unit in some LEAs) is a centre for children who are not able to attend a mainstream or special school. Each local education authority has a duty to make arrangements for the provision of education in or out of school for all children of compulsory school age. If children may not receive suitable education for any period for reasons such as illness or exclusion from school, these arrangements can be made through Pupil Referral Units - which are a mixture of public units and privately managed companies.

+No. 87 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force air intelligence squadron. The Squadron saw action during World War II as a photo reconnaissance squadron.

+No. 1 Photographic Reconnaissance Unit (or 1 PRU) was a flying unit of the Royal Air Force, first formed in 1940.

+The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft that was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries throughout the Second World War. The Spitfire continued to be used as a front line fighter and in secondary roles into the 1950s. It was produced in greater numbers than any other British aircraft and was the only British fighter in continuous production throughout the war.

+The 1951 Stanley Cup Final NHL championship series was contested by the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Montreal Canadiens. The Maple Leafs would win the series 4–1, with all five games going into overtime. It was the Toronto franchise's ninth Stanley Cup win and the last in a series of six wins starting in 1942. It was the first appearance in a string of ten consecutive appearances by the Canadiens.

+Roger Barkley (September 11, 1936 Odebolt, Iowa, USA – December 21, 1997, Duarte, California) was an American radio personality, based in Los Angeles, California, best remembered for his work with Al Lohman as part of The Lohman and Barkley Show on KFI.

+KFI is an AM radio station in Los Angeles, California. It received its license to operate on March 31, 1922 and began operating on April 16, 1922 as one of the United States' first high-powered, "clear-channel" stations. KFI is the dominant class A 50,000 watt station in North America which broadcasts on 640 AM. Currently, it operates as a talk radio station, airing a mixture of syndicated and locally originated news and talk programming.

+A clear-channel station is an AM band radio station in North America that has the highest protection from interference from other stations, particularly concerning night-time skywave propagation. Usually known as class A stations since 1982, they are occasionally still referred to by their former classifications of class I-A, class I-B, or class I-N. The term "clear channel" is used most often in the context of North America and the Caribbean, where the concept originated.

+James Barkley is an artist, illustrator, and professor[clarification needed] from Pleasantville, New York.[1] He has received a wide range of commissions across many areas; including children's books, book covers, classic books, advertising, television, newspapers, and magazines, and he has created portraits of many famous personalities and political figures.

+Brad Barkley is an American fiction writer, young adult novelist and a professor at Frostburg State University in Maryland.

+Frostburg State University (FSU) is a four-year university located on a 260-acre (1.1 km2) campus in Frostburg, Maryland, in Western Maryland, and is part of the University System of Maryland. FSU is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.

+Young-adult fiction or young adult literature (often abbreviated as YA),[1] also juvenile fiction, is fiction written, published, or marketed to adolescents and young adults, although recent studies show that 55% of young-adult fiction is purchased by readers over 18 years of age.[2] The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) of the American Library Association (ALA) defines a young adult as someone between the ages of twelve and eighteen. Authors and readers of young adult (YA) novels often define the genre as literature as traditionally written for ages ranging from twelve years up to the age of eighteen, while some publishers may market young adult literature to as low as age ten or as high as age twenty-five.

+The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), established in 1957, is a division of the American Library Association. YALSA is a national association of librarians, library workers and advocates whose mission is to expand and strengthen library services for teens, aged 12–18. Through its member-driven advocacy, research, and professional development initiatives, YALSA builds the capacity of libraries and librarians to engage, serve and empower teens. YALSA administers several awards and sponsors a biennial Young Adult Literature Symposium, Teen Read Week, the third week of each October, and Teen Tech Week, the second week of each March.

+Margaret Alexander Edwards (October 1902 – April 1988) was an educator and librarian who was at the forefront of the movement for young adult services in the 20th century.

+The Alex Awards annually recognize "ten books written for adults that have special appeal to young adults, ages 12 through 18".[1] Essentially the award is a listing by the American Library Association parallel to its annual Best Books for Young Adults, a longer list of recommended books that have been promoted in the YA category. YALSA also names several other "Top Tens" annually.

+The William C. Morris YA Debut Award is an annual award given to a work of young adult literature by a debut author. It is administered by the Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA). It was named for twentieth-century American publisher William C. Morris, whom YALSA calls an innovator and "an advocate for marketing books for children and young adults".[1] The award is funded by the William C. Morris Endowment, established in 2000 and activated in 2003 with a bequest of $400,000 from the Morris's estate.[2] Morris gave the money to the ALA to fund programs, publications, events, or awards in promotion of children’s literature.[

+William C. Morris is a town in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It forms part of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area and is located in the Hurlingham Partido.

+The Odyssey Award for Excellence in Audiobook Production is an annual award conferred by the American Library Association upon the publisher of "the best audiobook produced for children and/or young adults, available in English in the United States".[1][2] It is jointly administered by two ALA divisions (Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) and Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA)) and sponsored by Booklist magazine.

+The Michael L. Printz Award is an American Library Association literary award that annually recognizes the "best book written for teens, based entirely on its literary merit".[1] It is sponsored by Booklist magazine, administered by the ALA's young-adult division YALSA, and is named for the Topeka, Kansas school librarian Mike Printz, a long-time active member of the Young Adult Library Services Association.

+The YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction is an award by the Young Adult Library Services Association of the American Library Association that annually "honors the best nonfiction book published for young adults (ages 12-18)".[1] It was first given in 2010.[2] The award is announced at ALA's Midwinter Meeting.

+The Oakland Estuary is the strait separating the cities of Oakland and Alameda, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area. On its western end it connects to San Francisco Bay, while its eastern end connects to San Leandro Bay.

+Buddy L (or Buddy "L" or Buddy-L) is an American toy brand and company founded in 1920 as the Buddy L Toy Company in East Moline, Illinois, by Fred Lundahl.

+George Eastman (July 12, 1854 – March 14, 1932) was an American innovator and entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and popularized the use of roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream.

+Roy Rogers, born Leonard Franklin Slye (November 5, 1911 – July 6, 1998), was an American singer and cowboy actor, one of the most heavily marketed and merchandised stars of his era, as well as being the namesake of the Roy Rogers Restaurants franchised chain. He and his wife Dale Evans, his golden palomino, Trigger, and his German Shepherd dog, Bullet, were featured in more than 100 movies and The Roy Rogers Show. The show ran on radio for nine years before moving to television from 1951 through 1957.

+The Yarara Parachute Knife is a specially made dagger issued to Argentine Paratroopers with a handguard that functions as a knuckleduster.[1] Current issue models come with an emergency blade in the crossguard.

+Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder, in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.[1] The disorder may be hereditary or caused by other factors such as birth-related or other physical trauma, infection, poisoning (e.g., lead poisoning) or reaction to pharmaceutical drugs, particularly neuroleptics.[1] Treatment is difficult and has been limited to minimizing the symptoms of the disorder, since there is no cure available.

+Trijicon (pronounced Trîj-î-(kòn)) is an American company, based in Wixom, Michigan, that manufactures and distributes optical sighting devices for firearms, including pistols, rifles, and shotguns.Trijicon specialize in self-luminous optics and night sights, mainly using the slightly radioactive isotope tritium, light-gathering fiber optics, and batteries.

+Ambidexterity is the state of being equally adept in the use of both left and right appendages (such as the hands). It is one of the most famous varieties of cross-dominance. People that are naturally ambidextrous are uncommon, with only one out of one hundred people being naturally ambidextrous.[1] The degree of versatility with each hand is generally the qualitative factor in determining a person's ambidexterity.

+Here Comes Honey Boo Boo is an American reality television series on TLC that features seven-year-old child beauty pageant participant Alana "Honey Boo Boo" Thompson, along with her mother June Shannon, father Mike Thompson, and three older sisters. The show is mostly filmed in and around the family's hometown in rural McIntyre, Georgia, United States.

+Standard-definition television (SDTV) is a television system that uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high-definition television (HDTV 720p, 1080i, and 1080p) or enhanced-definition television (EDTV 480p). The two common SDTV signal types are 576i, with 576 interlaced lines of resolution, derived from the European-developed PAL and SECAM systems; and 480i based on the American National Television System Committee NTSC system.

+SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire,[1] French for "Sequential Color with Memory"), is an analog color television system first used in France. A team led by Henri de France working at Compagnie Française de Télévision (later bought by Thomson, now Technicolor) invented SECAM. It is, historically, the first European color television standard.

+Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (Russian: Великая Княжна Анастасия Николаевна Романова, Velikaya Knyazhna Anastasiya Nikolayevna Romanova) (June 18 [O.S. June 5] 1901 – July 17, 1918) was the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife, Tsarina Alexandra Fyodorovna.

+The Pakistan Academy of Letters (PAL) is a national academy with its main focus on Pakistani literature and related fields.[1][2] It is the largest and the most prestigious learned society of its kind in Pakistan, with activities throughout the nation. . It was established in July 1976 by a group of renowned Pakistani writers, poets, essayists, playwrights, and translators, inspired by the Académie Française.

+Parents Action League (PAL) is a citizens organization started in 2010 to oppose changes in the Anoka-Hennepin (Minnesota) School District 11 policy which limited discussions of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues in district classrooms.[3][4] PAL's roots go back as far as 1994, when one of its most-vocal members, Barb Anderson, successfully influenced the school district's board to exclude homosexuality from its sex-ed curriculum.

+ObjectPAL is short for Object-Oriented Paradox Application Language, which is the programming language used by the Borland Paradox database application (now owned by Corel).

+NTSC, named for the National Television System Committee,[1] is the analog television system that is used in most of North America, parts of South America (except Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and French Guiana), Myanmar, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, and some Pacific island nations and territories (see map).

+Anamorphic widescreen, when applied to DVD manufacture, is a video process that horizontally squeezes a widescreen image so that it can be stored in a standard 4:3 aspect ratio DVD image frame. Compatible playback equipment can then re-expand the horizontal dimension to show the original widescreen image.

+ITU-R Recommendation BT.601, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 601 or BT.601 (or its former name, CCIR 601,) is a standard published in 1982 by International Telecommunication Union - Radiocommunications sector (formerly CCIR) for encoding interlaced analog video signals in digital video form. It includes methods of encoding 525-line 60 Hz and 625-line 50 Hz signals, both with 720 luminance samples and 360 chrominance samples per line. The color encoding system is known as YCbCr 4:2:2. For a pair of pixels, the data are stored in the order Y1:Cb:Y2:Cr, with the chrominance samples co-sited with the first luminance sample.

+The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is responsible for radio communication.

+Chroma subsampling is the practice of encoding images by implementing less resolution for chroma information than for luma information, taking advantage of the human visual system's lower acuity for color differences than for luminance.

+In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the CRT gamut, or color gamut /ˈɡæmət/, is a certain complete subset of colors. The most common usage refers to the subset of colors which can be accurately represented in a given circumstance, such as within a given color space or by a certain output device. Another sense, less frequently used but not less correct, refers to the complete set of colors found within an image at a given time.

+The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns (a source of electrons or electron emitter) and a fluorescent screen used to view images.[1] It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam(s) onto the screen to create the images. The images may represent electrical waveforms (oscilloscope), pictures (television, computer monitor), radar targets or others. CRTs have also been used as memory devices, in which case the visible light emitted from the fluoresecent material (if any) is not intended to have significant meaning to a visual observer (though the visible pattern on the tube face may cryptically represent the stored data).

+An electron gun (also called electron emitter) is an electrical component that produces an electron beam that has a precise kinetic energy and is most often used in television sets and computer displays that use cathode ray tube (CRT) technology, as well as in other instruments, such as electron microscopes and particle accelerators.

+A photocathode is a negatively charged electrode in a light detection device such as a photomultiplier or phototube that is coated with a photosensitive compound. When this is struck by a quantum of light (photon), the absorbed energy causes electron emission due to the photoelectric effect.

+Dioptrics is the study of the refraction of light, especially by lenses. Telescopes that create their image with an objective that is a convex lens (refractors) are said to be "dioptric" telescopes.

+In optics, an image-forming optical system is a system capable of being used for imaging. The diameter of the aperture of the main objective is a common criteria for comparison among optical systems, such as large telescopes.

+A catadioptric optical system is one where